Table of Contents
Outline of the Profile
- CHAPTER I. HISTORICAL BACKGROUND
- CHAPTER II. GEOPHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT
- II.1. Geographical Location
- II.2. Political Boundaries
- II.3. Topography
- II.4. Geology
- II.5. Land Resources
- II.6. Mineral Resources
- II.7. Water Resources
- II.8. Climate
- II.9. Natural Hazards / Constraints
- CHAPTER III. POPULATION AND SOCIAL PROFILE
- III.1. Population Size and Growth Rate
- III.2. Present Status of Well-Being
- III.3. Social Welfare & Development
- III.4. Education
- III.5. Housing
- III.6. Recreation
- III.7. Protective Services
- CHAPTER IV. LOCAL ECONOMY
- IV.1. Agriculture
- IV.2. Livestock and Poultry
- IV.3. Fisheries
- IV.4. Agricultural Input Sources
- IV.5. Tourism
- CHAPTER V. INFRASTRUCTURE / UTILITIES / FACILITIES
- CHAPTER VI. LOCAL INSTITUTIONAL CAPABILITY
List of Maps and Images
- Map 1.1. Location Map (Philippines), Aurora Province
- Map 2.1. Geographical Location of Aurora Province
- Map 2.2. Administrative Boundary
- Map 2.3. Elevation Map
- Map 2.4. Geological Map
- Map 2.5. Soil Series
- Map 2.6. Land Classification Map, Aurora Province
- Map 2.7. Forest Protection Areas, Aurora Province
- Map 2.8. Map of Aurora Memorial National Park
- Map 2.9. Natural Drainage Map (Rivers and Creeks), Aurora Province
- Map 2.10. Marine Protected Areas
- Map 2.11. Climate Map of Aurora
- Map 2.12. Tracks of Tropical Cyclones
- Map 2.13. Flood Hazard Map, Aurora Province
- Map 2.14. Rainfall-Induced Landslide Hazard Map, Aurora Province
- Map 2.15. Ground Shaking Hazard, Aurora Province
- Map 2.16. Ground Rupture Hazard Map, Aurora Province
- Map 2.17. Earthquake-Induced Landslide Hazard Map, Aurora Province
- Map 2.18. Liquefaction Hazard Map, Aurora Province
- Map 2.19. Storm Surge Hazard Map, Aurora Province
- Map 2.20. Tsunami Hazard Map, Aurora Province
- Figure 3.1. Population Size and Distribution, by Municipality, Aurora Province
- Figure 3.2. Population Size and Density, by Municipality, Aurora Province
- Figure 3.3. Infant and Under Five Mortality Rates, Aurora Province
- Figure 3.4. Maternal Mortality Rate, Aurora Province
- Figure 3.5. Occupied Housing Units, Aurora Province
- Figure 4.1. Catholic Church of Baler
- Figure 4.2. Ermita Hill
- Figure 4.3. Bulawan Falls
- Figure 4.4. Ditumabo Falls
- Figure 4.5. Dinadiawan Beach
- Map 4.1. Map of Tourist Attractions
- Map 5.1. Map of Irrigation System in Aurora Province
List of Tables
- TABLE 2.1. TOTAL NUMBER AND PERCENT OF LAND AREA BY PROVINCE, REGION III
- TABLE 2.2. TOTAL LAND AREA BY MUNICIPALITY, AURORA PROVINCE
- TABLE 2.3. ELEVATION RANGE BY MUNICIPALITY, AURORA PROVINCE
- TABLE 2.4. GEOLOGIC ROCK TYPES AND TIME OF FORMATION AND DESCRIPTION, AURORA PROVINCE
- TABLE 2.5. GEOLOGY
- TABLE 2.6. SOIL TYPES, AURORA PROVINCE
- TABLE 2.7. FOREST COVER BY PROVINCE
- TABLE 2.8. PROTECTED LANDSCAPE/WATERSHED FOREST RESERVE, LOCATION, LAND AREA, PROCLAMATION NUMBER, AND DATE PROCLAIMED, AURORA PROVINCE
- TABLE 2.9. PROCLAIMED WATERSHED FOREST RESERVE IN AURORA
- TABLE 2.10. AGRICULTURAL LAND UTILIZATION, AURORA PROVINCE
- TABLE 2.11. AGRICULTURAL LAND PER MUNICIPALITY, AURORA PROVINCE
- TABLE 2.12. MAJOR RIVERS AND WATERSHED AREAS, AURORA PROVINCE
- TABLE 2.13. MARINE PROTECTED AREAS
- TABLE 2.14. POTENTIAL/PROPOSED MARINE PROTECTED AREAS
- TABLE 2.15. CLIMATOLOGICAL NORMALS, BALER SYNOPTIC STATION, BALER, AURORA (1971-2000), PAGASA 2016
- TABLE 2.16. CLIMATOLOGICAL NORMALS, CASIGURAN SYNOPTIC STATION, BALER, AURORA (1981-2010) PAGASA, 2016
- TABLE 2.17. LIST OF TROPICAL CYCLONES WHICH CROSSED THE PROVINCE OF AURORA FROM 1948 – 2016
- TABLE 2.18. LAND AREA SUSCEPTIBILITY TO FLOOD HAZARD, AURORA PROVINCE
- TABLE 2.19. LAND AREA SUSCEPTIBILITY TO RAINFALL-INDUCED LANDSLIDE HAZARD, AURORA PROVINCE
- TABLE 2.20. LAND AREA SUSCEPTIBILITY TO GROUND SHAKING HAZARD, AURORA PROVINCE
- TABLE 2.21. LAND AREA SUSCEPTIBILITY TO GROUND RUPTURE HAZARD, AURORA PROVINCE
- TABLE 2.22. LAND AREA SUSCEPTIBILITY TO EARTHQUAKE-INDUCED LANDSLIDE HAZARD, AURORA PROVINCE
- TABLE 2.23. LAND AREA SUSCEPTIBILITY TO LIQUEFACTION HAZARD, AURORA PROVINCE
- TABLE 2.24. LAND AREA SUSCEPTIBILITY TO STORM SURGE HAZARD, AURORA PROVINCE
- TABLE 2.25. LAND AREA SUSCEPTIBILITY TO TSUNAMI HAZARD, AURORA PROVINCE
- TABLE 3.1. POPULATION OF REGION III
- TABLE 3.2. TOTAL POPULATION AND POPULATION GROWTH RATE BY MUNICIPALITY
- TABLE 3.3. POPULATION DENSITY PER SQUARE KILOMETER BY MUNICIPALITY
- TABLE 3.4. POPULATION DISTRIBUTION BY AGE AND SEX
- TABLE 3.5. TOTAL POPULATION BY MUNICIPALITY AND SEX
- TABLE 3.6. ANNUAL PER CAPITA POVERTY THRESHOLD & POVERTY INCIDENCE OF POOR POPULATION
- TABLE 3.7. NUMBER OF HEALTH PERSONNEL AND FACILITIES
- TABLE 3.8. TEN LEADING CAUSE OF MORTALITY PER 100,000 INDIVIDUALS
- TABLE 3.9. TEN LEADING CAUSE OF MORBIDITY PER 100,000
- TABLE 3.10. BENEFICIARIES BEING SERVED BY DSWD, OPSWD, MSWDO
- TABLE 3.11. LIST OF ETHNIC GROUPS
- TABLE 3.12. ENROLLMENT IN PUBLIC & PRIVATE TERTIARY SCHOOLS (SY 2017-2018 AND 2018-2019)
- TABLE 3.13. ENROLLMENT IN PUBLIC & PRIVATE ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS (SY 2017-2018 AND 2018-2019)
- TABLE 3.14. ENROLLMENT IN PUBLIC & PRIVATE SECONDARY SCHOOLS (SY 2017-2018 AND 2018-2019)
- TABLE 3.15. NUMBER OF HOUSEHOLDS PER MUNICIPALITY
- TABLE 3.16. NUMBER OF OCCUPIED HOUSING UNITS, NUMBER OF HOUSEHOLDS, HOUSEHOLD POPULATION, AND RATIO OF HOUSEHOLDS AND HOUSEHOLD POPULATION TO OCCUPIED HOUSING UNITS BY TYPE OF BUILDING AND MUNICIPALITY, 2015, AURORA PROVINCE
- TABLE 3.17. OCCUPIED HOUSING UNITS BY CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS OF THE OUTER WALLS AND ROOF, AURORA PROVINCE 2015
- TABLE 3.18. NUMBER OF HOUSEHOLDS BY TYPE OF BUILDING, TENURE STATUS OF THE HOUSING UNIT/LOT
- TABLE 3.19. AURORA PPO PERSONNEL AND VEHICLES
- TABLE 3.20. STATUS OF MOBILITY OF POLICE VEHICLE
- TABLE 3.21. NUMBER OF FIREFIGHTERS AND FIRETRUCKS PER MUNICIPALITY
- TABLE 3.22. NUMBER OF MILITARY PERSONNEL AND MILITARY VEHICLES OF THE PROVINCE OF AURORA
- TABLE 3.23. NUMBER OF PCG PERSONNEL AND VEHICLES
- TABLE 4.1. PHYSICAL FEATURES ON AGRICULTURAL LAND
- TABLE 4.2. RICE PRODUCTION SITUATION BY MUNICIPALITY DURING WET SEASON
- TABLE 4.3. RICE PRODUCTION SITUATION BY MUNICIPALITY DURING DRY SEASON
- TABLE 4.4. COCONUT AREA AND LAND PRODUCTION BY MUNICIPALITY
- TABLE 4.5. CORN PRODUCTION (HYBRID YELLOW CORN) BY MUNICIPALITY
- TABLE 4.6. WHITE CORN PRODUCTION BY MUNICIPALITY
- TABLE 4.7. FRUIT TREE PRODUCTION BY MUNICIPALITY
- TABLE 4.8. ROOT CROPS AND TUBER PRODUCTION BY MUNICIPALITY
- TABLE 4.9. LIVESTOCK AND POULTRY POPULATION BY TYPE AND BY MUNICIPALITY, AURORA PROVINCE
- TABLE 4.10. FISHING BOATS BY TYPE AND PRODUCTION
- TABLE 4.11. COMMONLY CAUGHT FISH SPECIES IN THE PROVINCE
- TABLE 4.12. NUMBER OF RICE AND CORN DEALERS BY TYPE AND MUNICIPALITY
- TABLE 4.13. EXISTING WAREHOUSES, AURORA PROVINCE
- TABLE 4.14. NUMBERS OF FARMERS BY MUNICIPALITY
- TABLE 4.15. POST-HARVEST FACILITIES BY MUNICIPALITY
- TABLE 4.16. PROVINCIAL TOURIST ARRIVAL
- Table 4.17. HOTEL/INN/LODGE/RESORT PER MUNICIPALITY
- TABLE 4.18. DATA ON TOURISM ENTERPRISES AND ESTABLISHMENTS
- TABLE 4.19. MAJOR TOURIST ATTRACTIONS IN THE PROVINCE
- TABLE 4.20. LIST OF COMMERCIAL SAND AND GRAVEL PERMITTEES
- TABLE 4.21. INDUSTRY SHARE OF AURORA PROVINCE
- TABLE 5.1. LENGTH OF ROAD BY PAVEMENT
- TABLE 5.2. LENGTH OF BRIDGES
- TABLE 5.3. IRRIGATION FACILITIES BY MUNICIPALITY
- TABLE 5.4. ESTIMATED RIVER/CREEK DISCHARGE BY LOCATION
- TABLE 5.5. EXISTING IRRIGATION SYSTEM
- TABLE 5.6. SOURCE OF WATER SUPPLY FOR DRINKING
- TABLE 5.7 STATUS OF ELECTRIFICATION AS OF DECEMBER 2019
- TABLE 6.1. PROVINCIAL AGENCIES
- TABLE 6.2. FINANCIAL STATUS
- TABLE 6.3. PROVINCIAL REVENUE
CHAPTER I. HISTORICAL BACKGROUND
The Origins of Aurora Province
In 1571, Juan de Salcedo first explored Aurora Province. When he reached Casiguran and Baler from Laguna in 1609, a Franciscan mission was founded in Baler. In 1735, Baler was destroyed by a tidal wave from the Pacific Ocean, which they called “Tromba Marina”. The surviving inhabitants managed to reach the Hill of Point Baja for safety.
Aurora was originally composed of the municipalities of Baler and Casiguran. These municipalities were administered as part of Tayabas until the Province of Nueva Ecija was established in the early 19th Century.
In 1856, the eastern coast of Nueva Ecija was created into a district called “El Principe”. Baler and Casiguran were part of Nueva Ecija until 1902 when the Commonwealth Government abolished the district and ceded back Aurora to the Province of Tayabas.
On July 21, 1950, Maria Aurora was carved out from the Municipality of Baler and became a municipality through Executive Order No. 246. This was followed by the curving out of Dipaculao from the municipality of Casiguran on November 27, 1950, through EO No. 375. Both Executive Orders were signed by the late President Elpidio R. Quirino,
These four municipalities formed the first Aurora sub-province created as the administrative area of Quezon Province (formerly Tayabas) through the Republic Act (RA) No. 648 signed into law on June 14, 1951.
More municipalities of Aurora Sub-province were created and carved out from the first four municipalities. These added municipalities are as follows: i) the municipal district of San Luis created under RA No. 2452 and became a regular municipality on 16 July 1959 through the passage of RA no. 3487; ii) the municipal district of Dilasag was created by RA No. 2452 on 21 June 1959 and turned into a regular municipality by RA No. 7776 signed on 21 June 1969; iii) Dingalan was created as a municipal district in May 1956 and a regular municipality on 16 June 1962 under RA No. 3980; and iv) Dinalungan was created as a municipality on 16 June 1966 under RA No. 4759.
Foundation date and Etymology: On 21 November 1978, the Province of Aurora was created under Batas Pambansa Bilang 7, and subsequently ratified through a plebiscite in May 1979. It was named Aurora in honor of Doña Aurora Aragon Quezon, wife of the late President Manuel L. Quezon, the first president of the Philippines Commonwealth Government. The Foundation Day of Aurora Province is being celebrated every 19th day of February, simultaneous with Dona Aurora’s birthday.
On 17 May 2002, an Executive Order (EO) No. 103 was issued by then-President Gloria Macapagal Arroyo. This EO redefined the composition of Central Luzon and Southern Tagalog regional administrations. This paved way for the inclusion of Aurora as the seventh (7th) and the youngest member province of Central Luzon. The rest of Southern Tagalog was divided into two regions, namely: Region 4A- CALABARZON (Cavite, Laguna, Batangas, Rizal, Quezon); and Region 4B: MIMAROPA (Mindoro, Marinduque, Romblon, Palawan). This development has required most of the national agencies in the affected regions with the restructuring of their organizations and programs according to their new mandate.
Aurora Province is located at the mid-Eastern Luzon Seaboard of the country. It is bordered on the north (Isabela) and northwest (Quirino and Nueva Viscaya) by Region 2; on the west by Region 3- Nueva Ecija and Bulacan; on the south by Quezon Province of Region 4-A; and on the east the Pacific Ocean.
Map 1.1. Location Map (Philippines), Aurora Province
The early Spanish missionaries called Aurora Province “Contra Costa” due to its orientation towards the bleak and wild Eastern Coast of Luzon that faces the vast Pacific Ocean.
Aurora is situated northeast of Manila (capital of the country), stretching an approximate distance of 230 kilometers to its capital town of Baler. It can be reached by land, air, and sea modes of transportation, wherein travel on land is now preferred due to improved accessibility of Aurora with almost a hundred percent fully concreted access roads, aside from safer to travel and entailing lesser traveling costs.
CHAPTER II. GEOPHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT
II.1. Geographical Location
Aurora lies on the mid-eastern coast of Luzon surrounded by the Sierra Madre Mountains and the Philippine Sea. Baler, the capital town, is roughly 232 km away from Manila. It lies between 15°31’02” to 16°31’00″N along the latitudes and 121°31’02” to 122°01’30″E along the longitudes.
Map 2.1. Geographical Location of Aurora Province
The Geographic Information System (GIS) generated 323,954 hectares as the total land area of Aurora Province. Of the total land area, Casiguran covers about 18.9 % or 61,191.2 hectares as the largest among the municipalities of the Province. On the other hand, Baler covers the smallest land area of 11,252.4 hectares equivalent to 3.5 % of the Province’s total land area.
Compared to the land area of Region 3 and the country, Aurora has 14.14 and 1.09 percentage shares, respectively.
Table 2.1. Total Number and Percent of Land Area By Province, Region III
|Province||Total Area (hectares)||Percent||Rank|
|Nueva Ecija||528, 430||24.77||1|
|Total||2, 147, 044||100||–|
Source: Aurora PDPFP
II.2. Political Boundaries
Aurora Province is politically subdivided into eight (8) municipalities, namely: Dilasag, Casiguran, Dinalungan (Northern Development Zone); Baler, Maria Aurora, Dipaculao and San Luis (Central Development Zone); and Dingalan (Southern Development Zone). Of which, seven (7) municipalities are categorized coastal towns and 1 of those is inland. These eight (8) municipalities are further disaggregated into 151 barangays, in which Maria Aurora has the most number with 40 barangays and Dinalungan the least with nine (9). A lone Congressional District constitutes the province.
Table 2.2. Total Land Area By Municipality, Aurora Province
|Municipality||Total Area (hectares)||Number of Barangays|
Source: Aurora PDPFP
Although the province covers a portion of the Sierra Madre Mountain Ranges and is generally mountainous and forested, a significantly extensive area of flatland which are unevenly distributed throughout the province is presently cultivated with crops such as rice, corn, coconut, fruits bearing trees, vegetables and root crops.
The province is bounded by the provinces of Isabela on the north; Quirino, Nueva Viscaya, Nueva Ecija and Bulacan on the west; and Quezon on the south. The following are five major roads that link the province to the rest of Luzon.
- Subic – Clark – Tarlac – Nueva Ecija – Aurora Dingalan Port Road
- Bongabon – Villa Aurora Road
- San Luis – Ma. Aurora – Castañeda (Nueva Vizcaya) – Pantabangan Road
- Dinadiawan (Aurora) – Maddela (Quirino) – Cordon (Isabela) Road
- Dinapigue (Isabela) – Dilasag Road.
- Dingalan – General Nakar (Quezon Province) Road
Map 2.2. Administrative Boundary
Map 2.3. Elevation Map
Generally, Aurora Province has rugged terrain influenced by the forest-covered Sierra Madre Mountain Range. It has two major alluvial plains around Casiguran (north) and Baler (central) Valleys. The foothills are dissected by numerous alluvial valleys and descend further to coastal plains. Headlands taper along the coastal areas of the municipalities of Dingalan, San Luis, Dipaculao and Casiguran.
The minimum and maximum elevation ranges by the municipality are shown in Tab1e 3. It can be noted in this table that all municipalities of the province have the lowest elevations of zero above sea level (asl), except Maria Aurora with 10 meters.
Understandably, Maria Aurora is the only inland municipality of the province and situated some kilometers away from the shorelines. While the maximum elevation of all municipalities of the province rises-up to more than 1,000 meters above sea level, the lowest of which is Baler with 1,085 meters and the highest is 1,901 meters which correspond to the peak of “Bundok Madilim” a mountain in the municipality of Dingalan. This mountain is called as such because areas around its peak are always shaded by clouds.
Table 2.3. Elevation Range by Municipality, Aurora Province
|Municipality||Elevation Range (m) ASL (min.- max.)|
|Dilasag||0 – 1,250|
|Casiguran||0 — 1,670|
|Dinalungan||0 – 1,702|
|Dipaculao||0 – 1,305|
|Maria Aurora||10 – 1,040|
|Baler||0 – 1,085|
|San Luis||0 – 1,885|
|Dingalan||0 – 1,901|
Source: Forest Cover Inventory of Aurora Province, NAMRIA, 1991
Map 2.4. Geological Map
Main Geological Features of Aurora
The Province of Aurora is categorized into three (3) major landforms: a) Alluvial Landscape; b) Foothill Landscape; and c) Mountain Landscape. The succeeding paragraphs are lifted from the Land Resources Evaluation Study conducted by the Bureau of Soils, Ministry of Agriculture and Food, Region 4, in 1983. The major landforms are briefly discussed below.
II.4.1. Land Forms
The alluvial landscape was formed through the accumulation of eroded and transported recent alluvial sediments, consisting of sub-angular to rounded gravels, pebbles and boulders as well as fine materials like sand, silt and clay. The thickness ranges from 1 to 50 meters deep in place. These areas include flood plains, terraces, fans, riverbeds, in-filled valleys, swamps, marshes and coastal areas. These landforms are sporadically found in the eastern belt of the province occupying the level, nearly level, very gently undulating and slightly sloping areas. Recent alluvium was formed in the quarternary period which become moderately dissected by young and old streams and braided rivers.
The coastal areas occupy the narrow strips along the shorelines, and these were formed by the deposition of coarse and fine materials deposited by flowing water from higher areas to the creeks and rivers ultimately to the sea and reworked by current and wave actions. These areas constitute the beaches, beach ridges, and swales and tidal flats now colonized by nipa and mangroves. The most extensive of the tidal flats found in the province is located in the town of Casiguran, while smaller areas likewise occur in Dilasag and Baler.
This major landform comprises the hills and foothills as well as with few hillocks occupying the eastern foot of the Sierra Madre Mountains, lying from north to south. Formed through volcanic uplift and subsequent tensional force and compression, the surface configuration of this landscape has eventually been carried by erosion, landslides, rock falls, folding, soils’ creeping and deepening of water channels. The slope ranges from 8 to 40 % with concave- convex relief together with narrow and sharp ridges. The elevation ranges from 50 to 500 meters above sea level. It has a mixed lithology composed of five (5) different rocks formation dated from Jurassic to Eocene period. They are Neogene Intrussive (NI), Diorite, Meta Volcanics (KV), Undifferentiated (Kpg) and Paleogene Eocene rock (Pgl).
The two (2) kinds of rock found in the formations are igneous and metamorphic composed of basalt, andesite, gabbro, volcanic breccias, ultrabasic, dacite, porphery, diorite, schist, amphibolite, graywackes metamorphosed shale and slate. These kinds of rocks when weathered formed brown to red clay soils.
This landscape was formed and developed by violent upliftment and subsequent movement, frequent rising by strong tensional forces and compression as well as volcanic activity and other forces. The elevation ranges from 500 to 1,850 meters above sea level. The slope is 40 percent and above with varied relief of convex, concave, smooth, sharp and rugged. The Landform was shaped by erosion, gravity, rockfalls, landslides, tensional forces (faulting), folding and deepening of streams. This landform has mixed lithology, which have formed during the Jurassic to Eogene age. There are seven (7) rock formation identified in the area. These are the Umiray marbolized limestone, Neogene Intrussive (Diorite), Ultrabassic, Basic Complex, Metavolanic, Undifferentiated and the Paleogene Eocene, which composed of three (3) major kinds- Sedimentary, Igneous and Metamorphic rocks.
II.4.2. Rock Formations
Sedimentary rocks were formed from the decomposition products of other rocks, chemical precipitation and organic materials. Mapped and identified in the south-eastern tip of the province is a marbleized limestone (chemical origin) with concave and slightly developed Karst landform. This rock was made of calcium carbonate and Impurities. It is massive and hard, transition stage of limestone and marble which was probably been subjected to low grade type of thermal metamorphism. The soil formed from the weathering of this rock produced is usually gray to dark gray clay but is rather very shallow.
Igneous rock was formed by cooling of liquid magma, which subsequently solidified on or near the atmosphere (volcanic extrusive) or hardened beneath the earth’s surface (plutonic or intrusive). Mixture of these rocks extensively occurs in the Sierra Madre range. This rock represents the diorite which intruded the older rock formation in the area from basement complex to the lower Miocene sedimentary rocks. Other intrusive occurred in the middle Miocene. Rock facies of diorite vary from place to place. The most extensive is located in the municipalities of Dinalungan down to Maria Aurora in the Sierra Madre Mountains, as well as small stocks identified in the municipalities of San Luis and Dilasag. Intrussive rocks when weathered generally produce coarse loamy soils, while the volcanics formed fine loamy to clayey soil materials.
The volcanic rocks are composed of basalt, andesite, gabbro, volcanic breccia and ultra-basics, formed through either central or fissure eruptions. The largest area found in the Sierra Madre Mountains is heavily dissected by dentritic drainage pattern. These rocks when weathered formed brown to red clay soils.
Metamorphic rock is altered rock from sedimentary and igneous origin due to intense pressure and temperature. These rocks comprise the amphibolite quartz, feldsphatic, graywackes, metamorphosed shale, schist and slate. The largest areas occupied by these rocks are found in the municipalities of Casiguran, Dinalungan and Dilasag. A big stock is also located in the municipalities of San Luis, Baler and Dingalan. Another small stock is identified in the western rim boundary to Quirino Province. These areas are heavily dissected by young and old water channels different from igneous rocks. The soil formed by weathering of rock produces a fine to coarse loamy soil materials.
Table 2.4. Geologic Rock Types and Time of Formation and Description
Source: Aurora PDPFP
Table 2.5. Geology
|Description||Code||Symbol||Area, Ha||Area, %|
|Basement Complex (Pre-Jurassic)||BC1||407||48,069.60||14.84|
|Cretaceous-Paleocene (Igneous Rocks)||IK||707||31,682.81||9.78|
|Oligocene-miocene (Sedimentary & Metamorphic Rocks)||SN1||203||719.02||0.22|
|Paleocene-eocene (Igneous Rocks)||IPg1||508||1,140.04||0.35|
|Paleocene-eocene (Sedimentary & Metamorphic Rocks)||SPg1||855||14,407.97||4.45|
|Undifferentiated (Sedimentary & Metamorphic Rocks)||KPg1||787||100,291.48||30.96|
Source: Aurora PDPFP
II.4.3. Soil Types
Map 2.5. Soil Series
The Province of Aurora is identified with 15 different types of soil, which differ mainly in physical, chemical and morphological characteristics.
Mountain soil undifferentiated is the dominant soil type in Aurora which covers an area of 138,393.75 hectares or 47.72% of the total land area of the Province. This soil type covers most of the western portions (mountainous part), except some parts in the municipalities of Maria Aurora, San Luis and Dingalan.
Other soil types with significant coverage are Annam clay loam with an area of 56,949.78 hectares, Antipolo Sandy Clay with 38,289.47 hectares and Baler Silty Clay Loam with an aggregated area of 33,645.32 hectares.
Table 2.6. Soil Types, Aurora Province
|Soil Series||Area, Ha||Area, %|
|Annam clay loam||56,949.78||17.58|
|Annam silt loam||12,623.37||3.9|
|Antipolo sandy clay||38,289.47||11.82|
|Baler silty clay loam||33,645.32||10.39|
|Cervantes sandy loam||14,767.26||4.56|
|Laylay silt loam||699.01||0.22|
|Piris clay loam||3,688.27||1.14|
|Tagkawayan sandy loam||87.37||0.03|
|Umingan sandy loam||3,880.86||1.2|
|Mountain soil undifferentiated||138,393.75||42.72|
Source: Aurora PDPFP
II.5. Land Resources
The Province has four (4) major ecosystem resource boundaries, and these include: upland/forestland, lowland/agriculture, coastal and marine. These ecosystems, except marine, correspond to the Province’s total land area of 323,954 hectares.
II.5.1. Land Classification
Map 2.6. Land Classification Map, Aurora Province
The province is divided into two (2) major land classifications, namely: Forestland, and Alienable and Disposable Land (A&D). Total forestland covers an area of 254,969.16 hectares, while A&D land covers 61,138.66 hectares. The remaining 2,715.66 hectares is classified as inland waters (rivers and creeks), which is part of protected areas.
The increase of the population of Aurora from 214,336 in year 2015 to projected population 247,615 in year 2027, there will be a corresponding increase in the use of alienable and disposal lands for various uses such as land-based economic activities and settlements expansion. The largest contiguous A&D lands (mostly agricultural lands) are found in Maria Aurora, Casiguran, Dilasag, and Baler.
Forestland covers the largest land area of the province with 218,288 hectares or 79 % forest cover. It is classified into three (3) forest cover categories, viz: a) closed forest; b) open forest: and c) mangrove forest. Closed forest covers 132,548 hectares or 60.6 % of the total forestland, while open forest and mangrove forest cover an area of 85,518 hectares and 521 hectares or 39.2 % and 0.23 %, respectively.
Table 2.7. Forest Cover by Province, Central Luzon, Philippines
Source: Forestland Classification, Forestry Statistics, DENR, 2013
Map 2.7. Forest Protection Areas, Aurora Province
Protection areas are private lands, public lands and waters that are set aside for conservation, preservation, and rehabilitation because of their long-term strategic benefit and because of the observed and projected impact of climate-related events and disasters to these areas.
Protection refers to the rehabilitation or conservation, sustainable management of certain categories of land and water resources known as protection land. Protection land use involves the concept from human intrusion to protect and preserve the fragile ecosystem. In so doing, denuded areas will have time to undergo natural or assisted regeneration.
Map 2.8. Map of Aurora Memorial National Park
The Aurora Memorial National Park (AMNP) is a protected landscape covering 5,676 hectares, of which 29 % is within the jurisdiction of Nueva Ecija (Brgy. Labi, Bongabon). It was in this barangay where a marker is found indicating the place where the late Doña Aurora Aragon Quezon, wife of the late President Quezon was ambushed and killed. Such incident resulted to the proclamation of the Memorial National Park in honor of Mrs. Quezon.
Table 2.8. Protected Landscape/Watershed Forest Reserve, Location, Land Area, Proclamation Number, And Date Proclamated, Aurora Province
|Name of Protected Landscape/Watershed Forest Reserve||Location||Land Area (Ha)||Proc. No.||Date of Proc.|
|A. Protected Landscape|
|· Aurora Memorial National Park (AMNP)||Ma. Aurora and San Luis, Aurora and Bongabon, Nueva Ecija||5,676||744||19 Aug. 1941|
|· Amro River Protected Landscape||Casiguran & Dilasag||6,470.18||274||23-Apr-00|
|· Talaytay River Protected Landscape||Dinalungan||3,526.87||283||23 April 2000|
|· Simbahan-Talagas River Protected Landscape||Dinalungan||2,266.49||267||23 April 2000|
|· Dinadiawan River Protected Landscape||Dipaculao||3,371.33||278||23-Apr-00|
|· Casecnan Protected Landscape||Dipaculao||3,250.00||289||23-Apr-00|
|B. Watershed Forest Reserve|
|· Pinamacan River Watershed Forest Reserve||Dilasag||2,904.90||236||23 Aug. 1993|
Source: Aurora PDPFP
Table 2.9. Proclaimed Watershed Forest Reserve in Aurora
|Name of Watershed||City/Municipality||Area||Proclamation No.||Proclamation Date|
|Amro River Watershed Forest Reserve||Casiguran, Dilasag||6470.18||633||8/28/1990|
|Bazal River Watershed Forest Reserve||Maria Aurora||4403||402||5/2/1994|
|Bulawan Falls Watershed Forest Reserve||Dinalungan||986||395||5/30/1994|
|Calabgan Watershed Forest Reserve||Casiguran||4803.44||915||6/1/1992|
|Diaat River Watershed Forest Reserve||Maria Aurora|
|Dibalo-Pingit-Zabali-Malayat River Watershed Forest Reserve||Baler, San Luis||4528||908||5/25/1992|
|Dinadiawan River Watershed Forest Reserve||Dipaculao||3387||918||6/9/1992|
|Dingalan River Watershed Forest Reserve||Dingalan||1788||23||8/24/1992|
|Dipaculao Watershed Forest Reserve||Dipaculao||1786||116||6/10/1987|
|Diteki River Watershed Forest Reserve||Maria Aurora, San Luis||12970||20||8/24/1992|
Source: Aurora PDPFP
Agriculture is the major sector of Aurora Province’s economy with production area covering about 33,473.12 hectares or equivalent to 10.33 % of the Province’s total land area. Of this total, land area devoted to palay production occupies about 9,821.85 hectares, followed by coconut plantation with 7,276.52 hectares, and diversified crops with 5,799.58 hectares. About 1,498.08 hectares are within the agroforestry zone, 150.44 hectares are hill farms, while 8,893.30 hectares have unspecified agricultural classification. The rest of the agricultural land are utilized to inland fisheries (fishponds) covering an area of 33.35 hectares.
Agricultural activities are mostly concentrated on the lowland areas with slopes 0 to 8 %, where temporary crops are mostly found, including lowland coconuts trees. On the other hand, Portions of rolling to undulating areas (8-18 % slopes) are usually planted with permanent crops such as coconuts and fruit-bearing trees, as well as highland cash crops.
The Province’s prime agricultural land can sustain high level of crop production, in which 62 percent of its population is dependent from this sector for foods and sources of income from agricultural crops.
Table 2.10. Agricultural Land Utilization, Aurora Province
|Agricultural Land Utilization||Areas (Ha)|
Table 2.11. Agricultural Land Per Municipality, Aurora Province
Source: LGU Municipal Agricultural Office
5.2. Land Suitability
Land Suitability is the classification of land based on its suitability for specific types of forestry, pasture, or agricultural uses. The land resources of Aurora can be classified into six types:
- Suitable for irrigated rice/freshwater fishpond
- Suitable for cultivated annual crops
- Suitable for perennial and vine crops
- Suitable for pasture land
- Suitable for plantation
- Suitable for production forest
Agricultural areas suited for irrigated rice lands are mostly found in the central and northern municipalities of the Province with a total area of about 9,821.85 hectares. Other crops, like coconut and other perennial trees and vines are suited province-wide.
Suitable for production forest are all forestlands except those declared watershed forest reserves, protected landscape, Aurora Memorial National Park, forestlands with more than 18% slopes and above 500 meters elevation, mangroves, and Military and Civil Reservations.
Suitable for pasture lands are undulating to hilly grassland areas, as well as lowland areas that are not used for crop production.
II.6. Mineral Resources
Based on data obtained from the Mines and Geosciences Bureau (MGB Region 3) of the Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR), Aurora has large deposits of metallic minerals such as copper, chromite, magnetite sand, and manganese. Also, the province has potential existence of non-metallic minerals like limestone and silica.
The absence of large-scale mining (LSM) in the province would mean that above-mentioned metallic and non-metallic minerals are preserved. At present, only small-scale mining (SSM), particularly sand and gravel extraction, is allowed in the Province. The management of SSM rests to the Provincial Government of Aurora through its Environment and Natural Resources Office. Small-scale Mining is one of the DENR’s functions devolved to Local Government Units (PLGUs).
To ensure that untoward environmental accidents will happen, the SSM permit applicants are required to secure Environmental Compliance Certificate (ECC) where mitigation measures are stipulated for strict implementation.
II.7. Water Resources
The Province of Aurora has an abundant water supply, both surface and underground water. Surface water comes from flowing rivers and creeks, which are numerous in the Province, and are commonly used for domestic and irrigation purposes. On the other hand, underground water is sourced from water table and confined water aquifer through pumping and free flowing water, respectively. Water table source is shallow (a few meters from ground surface), while water from confined aquifer can reach down to 150 feet. Both water sources are mostly used for domestic purposes and sometimes for irrigation, especially during long dry days.
The watershed groups are categorized as upper, middle, and lower, all of which have a common point of water discharge in the mouth of the river. Majority of the watershed groups drain towards the Pacific Ocean, while others drain towards adjacent provinces of Isabela, Quirino, Nueva Viscaya, Nueva Ecija and Bulacan.
The watershed serves as water harvesting area, feeding rivers and their tributaries with surface water as well as underground waters (water table and confined aquifer water).
Regarding natural drainage ways, there are 40 major rivers that drain the watersheds of Aurora Province. These rivers serve to drain excess rainwater, including those waters being released slowly by the watershed into these rivers.
Of the 40 major rivers, twenty-seven (27) are within the watersheds covering an area of more than 1,000 hectares, of which the Malupa River, located within the jurisdiction of the municipality of Ma. Aurora, is draining in the largest watershed with an area of 9,365 hectares.
Table 2.12. Major Rivers and Watershed Areas, Aurora Province
|Name of River||Location||Catchmen Area (Ha)||Name of River||Location||Catchmen Area (Ha)|
Source: AIADP, Hydrology Study, 1991, Aurora Province.
Map 2.9. Natural Drainage Map (Rivers and Creeks), Aurora Province
A coastline stretch of 332 km borders the province of Aurora alongside the Philippine Sea, the territorial claim of the country within the Pacific Ocean. Of the eight municipalities, seven are situated on the coast, while only one is land-locked (Maria Aurora). At approximately 250 km directly east of the Aurora, the well-celebrated Benham Bank stands as the shallowest portion of an even bigger underwater formation, the Benham Rise, now renamed as the Philippine Rise. This igneous (of magma origin) plateau with a size of about 250 km in diameter is teeming with life, blanketed with coral assemblages and other benthic components observed at a hundred percent living cover. In the open ocean, it is a refuge to several fish species including surgeonfish, hawkfish, and damselfish, and large predators such as tiger sharks, as recorded by previous research expeditions.
On May 15, 2018, Presidential Proclamation No. 489 was signed in Casiguran, Aurora, declaring 352,390 has of Philippine Rise as a Marine Resource Reserve. Within the said area, a Strict Protection Zone covering 49,684 has is established, while the rest is designated as a Special Fisheries Management Area as defined under RA No. 8550, as amended by RA No. 10654, or the Philippine Fisheries Code of 1998. The Philippine Rise is historically, and even at present, riddled with geopolitical disputes with other nations due to its unique features and high economic potential, such as for industrial fishing, mining, and oil extraction.
Map 2.10. Marine Protected Areas
Marine protected areas (MPAs) in Aurora established through local ordinances. These marine sanctuaries serve various ecological functions such as nursery, breeding, and feeding grounds for marine organisms, refuge for threatened species, natural/assisted recovery sites for degraded or disturbed areas, stock reserve of marine products, and as natural marine parks for tourism and scientific purposes.
Table 2.13. Marine Protected Areas
|Marine Protected Areas/Fish Sanctuaries (Area)||Location/Municipality||Legal Basis|
|Baler Marine Protected Area||Baler||Municipal Ordinance DO8 Series of 2006|
|Dibutunan Marine Protected Area (37 hectares)||Dipaculao||Ordinance Number 2006-02|
|Ditangol Marine Sanctuary (19 hectares)||Dinalungan||2004-017 Management and utilization and Protection of Coastal Resources|
|Mabudo Fish Sanctuary (37 hectares)||Dinalungan||Municipal Ordinance 2002-199|
|Digisit-Puntian Marine Sanctuary||Baler||Municipal Ordinance|
|Dibut Bay Marine Protected Area (270.5 hectares)||San Luis||Kautusang Bayan Bilang 003-99|
|Paltic Marine Sanctuary (100 hectares)||Dingalan||Ordinance No. 04-S.2011|
|Casapsapan Sanctuary (50 hectares)||Casiguran|
|Kabunwangan, Olol Marine Protected Area (50 hectares)|
Source: UP-MSI, BFAR 2019
Additional coastal nodes that can be subject for protection and conservation are also identified and characterized. The Aurora MPA Network also determined turtle nesting sites to exist in five (5) municipalities: Dingalan, San Luis, Dipaculao, Casiguran, and Dilasag. Similarly, sea cow or “dugong” (Dugong dugon) sightings have been reported in Dipaculao and Dinalungan.
Table 2.14. Potential/Proposed Marine Protected Areas
|Location of Potential/Proposed MPA||Status/Description|
|Pandungan, San Ildefonso||On-process of declaring Marine Protected Area|
|Casapsapan and Culat||On-process of declaring Marine Protected Area/Seagrass Conservation Area|
|Lual and Cozo||Bird sanctuary and sea turtle breeding area|
|Dinipan, Cozo||Potential to be designated as Marine protected area|
|Ditinagyan||Potential to be designated as fish sanctuary|
|Dibacong||Potential to be designated as Marine protected area due to its vast seagrass area|
|Dalugan, San Ildefonso||Located in the APECO contested area, however locals have identified this as a possible sanctuary and breeding area for sea turtles|
|Masagana, Dilasag||Mangrove Forest Park|
|Barangay Dibayabay||Proposed Fish Sanctuary, Seagrass Conservation Zone, And Marine Turtle Sanctuary (50.71 hectares)|
|Sitio Antal, Brgy. Dikapinisan||Proposed Fish Sanctuary (1.44 hectares)|
|Sitio Dibuksoy, Brgy. Dikapinisan||Proposed Marine Turtle Sanctuary (0.96 hectares)|
|Brgy. Dimanayat||Proposed Fish Sanctuary (40.54 hectares)|
|Sitio Dibanga||Marine Turtle Sanctuary (1.2 hectares)|
|Sitio Alasanay, Dimanayat||Proposed Marine Turtle Sanctuary (0.98 hectares)|
|Sitio Dikapanikian, Dimanayat||Proposed Fish Sanctuary (2 hectares)|
Source: UP-MSI, BFAR 2019
The entire province of Aurora is a hotspot of biodiversity hosting a wide array of habitat types ranging from the highland terrains of Sierra Madre (Mt. Mingan: highest point of elevation at 1,901 MASL), cascading down to gentler slopes through rich forest vegetation that showcases a variety of species assemblages from one ecological zone to another. The interactions among these species work closely together to attain ecological balance and sustain its natural functions, both to the environment and the community.
External forces that disrupts this balance, especially unsustainable human activities disguised in the pretence of “development”, may cause deterioration of environmental conditions making it unsuitable for survival. Historically, Aurora have been put under threat following the extensive logging boom during the 1980’s and early 2000’s, which depleted the virgin forests in some municipalities. Along with other intrusive activities such as wildlife extraction, conversion to farmland, and introduction of IAS (invasive alien species), among many others, drastic losses in habitat and species population is likely to be incurred. Unless proactive interventions for the protection and conservation of these species are put in place, the effects may be irreversible. Biodiversity monitoring systems and assessment tools conducted in several portions of Aurora have provided useful data on the existing biotic gems of the province and their corresponding conservation status.
The climate of Aurora province belongs to the type II climate based on the Modified Coronas Classification (Figure 4), however, maximum rainfall falls on October because tropical cyclones usually visits Aurora during this month. The abundant precipitation of the province can be partly explained by its proximity to the large bodies of water such as the Pacific Ocean to its east and the exposure during the prevalence of the northeast monsoon.
Map 2.11. Climate Map of Aurora
Two pronounced seasons, dry from November to April, and wet during the rest of the year. Maximum rain period is from June to September.
No dry season with a very pronounced maximum rain period from December to February. There is not a single dry month. Minimum monthly rainfall occurs during the period from March to May.
No very pronounced maximum rain period, with a short dry season lasting only from one to three months, either during the period from December to February or from March to May. This climate type resembles type I since it has a short dry season.
Rainfall is more or less evenly distributed throughout the year. This climate type resembles the second type more closely since it has no dry season.
II.8.1. Atmospheric Temperature
The rugged terrain that surrounds the province of Aurora makes its temperature a bit milder as compared to the nearby provinces. Based from the 30-year climatological records of the Baler Synoptic Station (1971-2000) which was previously located near the municipal hall of Baler (now moved to Baler Radar) the mean temperature ranges from 24.5°C during the cold month of January up to 28.3°C on January to 33°C on June. However, the average monthly minimum temperature ranges from 20.4° on January to 23.7°C on June and August.
The Casiguran Synoptic Station’s 30-year climate normal recorded mean temperature that ranges from 23.7°C to 28.5° to 28.5°C while maximum temperature recorded in Baler was 41.2°C on July 16, 1991 while the lowest is 14.3°C on January 10, 1971
II.8.2. Relative Humidity
The abundance of rainfall in Baler and Casiguran is an evidence of high relative humidity all year round. Relative humidity in Baler ranges from 80% to 83% while in Casiguran in 87% to 90%.
The municipality of Baler has a mean annual rainfall of 3365.3 mm; while Casiguran has 3745.6 mm; which is one of the wettest places in Luzon. February has the least amount of rainfall in Baler with 156.2 mm while the month of April in Casiguran with 183 mm of rainfall. The high and extreme rainfall events are most likely to occur from October to December in both municipalities when condition in Western Pacific is more conducive to the formation of tropical cyclones or “Bagyo”.
Table 2.15. Climatological Normals, Baler Synoptic Station, Baler, Aurora (1971-2000), PAGASA 2016
Source: PAGASA 2019
Table 2.16. Climatological Normals, Casiguran Synoptic Station, Baler, Aurora (1981-2010) PAGASA, 2016
Source: PAGASA 2019
II.8.4. Wind and Tropical Cyclones
Aurora’s geographical location has higher vulnerability to weather changes. It is the land mass that is nearest to the source of tropical cyclone. From 1948 to 2016, a total of 94 tropical cyclones crossed the Province of Aurora (Figure 2). Fifty (50) or 53% of these TC’s reached typhoon categories, 24 or 26% are tropical storms and 19 or 20% tropical depressions. Most of these tropical cyclones occurred during the months of July, October and November when the easterly winds are still active and the northeast monsoon is intensifying. One of the most disastrous tropical cyclones that crossed the province of Aurora was Typhoon Lando on October 18, 2015 with a recorded maximum gustiness of 252kph in Casiguran while 216kph in Baler.
Weather patterns in the Philippines are dictated by the prevailing winds-the Habagat (southwest monsoon) and the Amihan (northeast monsoon). The northeast monsoon brings rains and colder temperature to Type II climate from October to May.
Baler is shielded by natural barriers from the natural effects of both monsoons especially during their peaks. Easterly winds set in September and stay until June. In June the prevailing wind flow is shifted to westerly. The westerly winds weaken in September, during which the southwesterly winds prevail. And in October the cycle is completed when the winds become easterly again. The normal wind speed in Aurora is 2 meters per second. As of 2016, the strongest wind speed recorded in Baler was 61 mps in a South-westerly direction November 1, 1993 during the passage of Typhoon Husing.
Map 2.12. Tracks of Tropical Cyclones
Table 2.17. List of Tropical Cyclones Which Crossed the Province of Aurora from 1948 – 2016
|Year||Month||Type||TC Name||PAR BEG||PAR END|
Source: PAGASA 2016
II.9. Natural Hazards / Constraints
There are eight (8) types of hazards that can potentially put exposed elements at risk. These are flood, rain-induced landslide, ground-shaking, ground-rupture, earthquake-induced landslide, liquefaction, storm surge, and tsunami. Meanwhile, there are five (5) exposure elements that were considered in profiling the impact of hazards in the Province: (1) Population, (2) Urban Use Area, (3) Natural Resource-Based Production Areas, (4) Critical Point Facilities, and (5) Lifeline Utilities.
Population exposure refers to households that are located in hazard-prone areas, thus, making them exposed to potential natural disasters. To obtain this information, the household map from the 2016 Community Based Monitoring System (CBMS) were used and analyzed by overlaying of all recent hazard maps. The maps show the household locations that either highly, moderately, or marginally susceptible to different hazards. On the other hand, the tables listed down the exact number of households that are exposed. To obtain the number of individuals, the average household size of 5 members can be used as a multiplier. In lieu of the household map, the existing residential land use map can also be used, but it would not be very accurate.
Urban use area exposure pertains to commercial, industrial, tourism, parks and recreation, cemetery, and other urban uses that are found to be within the identified hazard zones. Here, the existing built up areas map were analyzed together with the existing land use map before overlaying the eight hazard maps. Urban uses exposed to hazards were measured by the number of hectares, level of susceptibility, and location.
Natural resource-based production areas exposure is concerned with land that are used for agricultural, fisheries, and forestry- based production. These shall cover areas such as croplands, livestock production areas, fishery areas, production forests, and other resource production areas unique to the locality. Here, the existing land use map were evaluated to verify their boundaries as well as category (forest and agriculture).
Critical point facilities are those associated with the delivery of basic social services such as hospitals, schools, social welfare facilities, government buildings, and protective services. In addition are point facilities associated with water, power, communication, bridges, evacuation centers, seaports, airports, food storage facilities; and other unique critical point facilities in the locality. Since is vital for these facilities to continue its operations in times of disaster, it is imperative that they are in places that are least likely to be affected by any kind of natural hazard. For the purpose of this plan, spot maps pointing to the location of different government and institutional facilities were used. Exposed elements were determined by the type of facility, number, and location (municipality).
Finally, lifeline utilities refer to major linkage and distribution systems associated with transportation access systems and power, water, and communication distribution/line systems. In this section, the Plan was able to provide information on the location and length (kilometers) of roads and bridges that are susceptible to different types of hazards. It is important to consider that majority of water, power and communication distribution lines are found along road networks.
Map 2.13. Flood Hazard Map, Aurora Province
Table 2.18. Land Area Susceptibility to Flood Hazard, Aurora Province
Source: Aurora PDPFP
Table 6 shows the Land Area Susceptibility to Flood Hazard of the Province using high, moderate and low levels parameter. From the table, Maria Aurora has the largest land area (2, 304.6 Ha), followed by Casiguran (1,747.1 Ha) and Baler (1,256 Ha) with High level of flood susceptibility. High level means 1-meter (or more) depth of floodwater is possible in the area. Moderate level of flooding is also imminent in the Municipality of Casiguran (3,005.7 Ha), Baler (2,737.6 Ha) and Dilasag (2,320 Ha). Moderate level on the other hand is 0.5 to 1.0 meter in depth of floodwater. A total of 22,101.50 hectares or 6.81% of the total land area of the province is susceptible to flood hazard.
Map 2.14. Rainfall-Induced Landslide Hazard Map, Aurora Province
Table 2.19. Land Area Susceptibility to Rainfall-Induced Landslide Hazard
Source: Aurora PDPFP
Table 7 shows that Rainfall-Induced Landslide in the province was scored at low to moderate level only. Low level means low to gently sloping areas and no evidence of mass movement while Moderate score means areas with inactive/active landslides, presence of small tension cracks and moderate slopes. The municipality of Maria Aurora has the largest land area (8,641.3 Ha) with moderate level of susceptibility; Casiguran and Dilasag are behind with 5,113.6 Ha and 4,500.5 Ha respectively. Low level of rain-induced landslide was seen high in the municipalities of Dilasag (6,079 Ha.), San Luis (4,440.2 Ha) and Maria Aurora (2,970.6 Ha.).
Map 2.15. Ground Shaking Hazard, Aurora Province
Table 2.20. Land Area Susceptibility to Ground Shaking Hazard, Aurora Province
|No.||Municipality||Hazard||Area, Ha||Area, %|
|1||Baler||PEIS Intensity VIII and above||11,252.40||3.5|
|2||Maria Aurora||PEIS Intensity VIII and above||42,585.80||13.1|
|3||San Luis||PEIS Intensity VIII and above||58,836.70||18.2|
|4||Dipaculao||PEIS Intensity VIII and above||38,852.40||12|
|5||Dingalan||PEIS Intensity VIII and above||39,782.70||12.3|
|6||Dinalungan||PEIS Intensity VIII and above||28,196.30||8.7|
|7||Casiguran||PEIS Intensity VIII and above||61,191.20||18.9|
|8||Dilasag||PEIS Intensity VIII and above||43,256.40||13.4|
Source: Aurora PDPFP
For Ground Shaking, the province susceptibility level is PEIS Intensity VIII and above that could affect all the municipalities. The northernmost part of the province specifically the municipality of Casiguran having the largest land area of 61,191.2 Ha susceptible to ground shaking has experienced the most frequent ground shaking in the past. Recorded damage sustained to date in the province has been relatively minor and has been restricted to some incidence of cracked foundations, walls, and pictures falling off of the wall.
Map 2.16. Ground Rupture Hazard Map, Aurora Province
Table 2.21. Land Area Susceptibility to Ground Rupture Hazard, Aurora Province
|No.||Municipality||Hazard||Length, km||Length, %|
|4||Dipaculao||Active Fault: Trace Certain||3.7||4.9|
|5||Dingalan||Active Fault: Trace Approximate||7.8||10.4|
|5||Dingalan||Active Fault: Trace Certain||0.5||0.7|
|6||Dinalungan||Active Fault: Trace Certain||9||12.1|
|7||Casiguran||Active Fault: Trace Certain||16.9||22.5|
|8||Dilasag||Active Fault: Trace Certain||35.4||47.2|
Source: Aurora PDPFP
Ground ruptures occurs when seismic waves radiate causing the ground to vibrate which results to differential movements of two sides of the fracture. A total of 74.9 Km were traced as an active fault in the municipalities of Dipaculao, Dingalan, Dinalungan, Casiguran and Dilasag. The municipality of Dingalan has the greatest number of active faults traced (3) while Dilasag has the longest active fault traced with 35.4 km.
Map 2.17. Earthquake-Induced Landslide Hazard Map, Aurora Province
Table 2.22. Land Area Susceptibility to Earthquake-Induced Landslide Hazard, Aurora Province
Source: Aurora PDPFP
Table shows that 64.44% or 208, 719.2 Ha of the total land area of the province is susceptible to Earthquake-Induced Landslide. The municipality of Casiguran has the biggest land area susceptible to Earthquake-Induced Landslide (45,176 Ha) followed by San Luis (44,841.7 Ha) and Dilasag (31,233 Ha). However, in terms of level of susceptibility, San Luis appeared to have the biggest land area (8,559.7 Ha) with High Level of susceptibility followed by Dingalan (3,071.5 Ha) and Casiguran (3,044.9 Ha.)
Map 2.18. Liquefaction Hazard Map, Aurora Province
Table 2.23. Land Area Susceptibility to Liquefaction Hazard, Aurora Province
Source: Aurora PDPFP
For Liquefaction Hazard, the susceptibility Levels are High in the municipalities of Baler, Casiguran and Dipaculao with 4, 508.4 Ha (1.39%) , 4,138 Ha (1.28%) and 2, 349 Ha ().73%) of land area exposed to liquefaction respectively. Throughout the province, a total of 32,322.40 hectares or 9.98% of the total land area is susceptible to liquefaction hazard.
Map 2.19. Storm Surge Hazard Map, Aurora Province
Table 2.24. Land Area Susceptibility to Storm Surge Hazard, Aurora Province
|No.||Municipality||Hazard||Area, Ha||Area, %|
|1||Baler||Inundations of >1m to 4m surges||195.7||0.06|
|1||Baler||Inundations of >4m to 12m surges||448.2||0.14|
|3||San Luis||Inundations of >4m to 12m surges||789.2||0.24|
|4||Dipaculao||Inundations of >1m to 4m surges||95.2||0.03|
|4||Dipaculao||Inundations of >4m to 12m surges||414.1||0.13|
|5||Dingalan||Inundations of >4m to 12m surges||1,375.30||0.42|
|6||Dinalungan||Inundations of >1m to 4m surges||84.7||0.03|
|6||Dinalungan||Inundations of >4m to 12m surges||151.1||0.05|
|7||Casiguran||Inundations of >1m to 4m surges||968.9||0.3|
|7||Casiguran||Inundations of >4m to 12m surges||130||0.04|
|8||Dilasag||Inundations of >1m to 4m surges||222.8||0.07|
Source: Aurora PDPFP
All the seven (7) municipalities in the province except for Maria Aurora are susceptible to Storm Surge. Municipalities and Barangays along the coastline are mainly at risk in an offshore rise of water associated with a low-pressure weather system. The municipality of Dingalan has the largest land area of 1, 375.3 Ha (0.42 %) susceptible to inundations of >4m to 12m surges, followed by San Luis with 789.2 Ha (0.24%) and Baler with 448.2 Ha (0.14%). On the other hand, susceptibility to inundations of >1m to 4m surges is very likely to happen in the municipalities of Casiguran (968.9 Ha), Dilasag (222.8) and Baler (195.7 Ha).
Map 2.20. Tsunami Hazard Map, Aurora Province
Table 2.25. Land Area Susceptibility to Tsunami Hazard, Aurora Province
|No.||Municipality||Hazard||Area, Ha||Area, %|
|1||Baler||Tsunami Inundation Area||3,575.70||1.1|
|3||San Luis||Tsunami Inundation Area||854.4||0.26|
|4||Dipaculao||Tsunami Inundation Area||2,383.60||0.74|
|5||Dingalan||Tsunami Inundation Area||1,411.10||0.44|
|6||Dinalungan||Tsunami Inundation Area||1,269.20||0.39|
|7||Casiguran||Tsunami Inundation Area||4,871.20||1.5|
|8||Dilasag||Tsunami Inundation Area||1,346.70||0.42|
Source: Aurora PDPFP
Like storm surge, Tsunami inundation area is present in the municipalities of Baler, San Luis, Dipaculao, Dingalan, Dinalungan, Casiguran, Dilasag. 58, 297.70 hectares or 18% of the total land area of the province is exposed to Tsunami hazard. The municipalities of Casiguran with 4,871 Ha (1.5%), Baler with 3,575 Ha (1.10%) and Dipaculao with 2,383.6 Ha (0.74%) has the greatest number of areas covered susceptible to Tsunami in terms of its land area.
CHAPTER III. POPULATION AND SOCIAL PROFILE
III.1. Population Size and Growth Rate
Aurora is the least populated province in the whole Region III with 214,336 individuals. This figure represents only 1.91 percentage of the regional total. Table 3.1 shows the total population of the province per province and their population distribution.
Table 3.1. Population of Region III
Source: PSA, 2015
Maria Aurora consistently got the largest population share among the eight municipalities in the province with 18.95% (38,128) and 19.00% (40,734) during the periods 2010 and 2015, respectively. However, in terms of annual growth rate, the municipality along with Dingalan only ranks second with 1.51 percent. Closely following is Baler with 17.89% (36,010) and 18.46% (39,562) during the periods 2010 and 2015, respectively. However, in terms of annual growth rate, the municipality ranked first with 1.81 percent. The third municipality with the largest population shares in the province in 2015 is Dipaculao (13.87%) followed by San Luis (12.76%) then Dingalan (11.89%).
All these five municipalities have annual population growth rates higher than the province which stands only at 1.21 percent. In contrast, the municipality with the smallest population share in the province is Dinalungan with 5.28% (11,322) in 2015. This is followed by Dilasag (7.39%) and Casiguran (11.34%). These three municipalities have annual growth rates lesser than the province. Table 3.2 shows the population and the population growth rate of each municipality in the province.
Table 3.2. Total Population and Population Growth Rate by Municipality
Source: PSA, 2015
Figure 3.1. Population Size and Distribution, by Municipality, Aurora Province
The high population growth in Baler is brought about by its being the core urban center of the province where vibrant economic activities thrive, hence, most social services are found, and employment opportunities are better. On the other hand, the fast-growing settlement in San Luis is attributed to the spillover effect of the municipality’s proximity to Baler. Besides, the municipality is endowed with flatlands making it attractive for settlements and agricultural activities.
In the case of Maria Aurora, its large population is mostly attributed to its geographic location where it serves as the ‘Gateway of Aurora’ from Nueva Ecija via Canili area and Baler’s access to Nueva Ecija via Pantabangan. The presence of more improved infrastructures can also be a contributing factor. Meanwhile, the population increase in both Dipaculao and Dingalan municipalities are largely attributed to natural increase.
Baler is the most densely populated municipality in the province which is still attributed to its being the core urban center, and with the smallest land area among the municipalities in the province. It has 352 persons per square kilometer of land which is more than 5 times higher than the province. Maria Aurora ranks second with 96 persons per square kilometer of land followed by Dipaculao and Dingalan with 77- and 64-persons square kilometer of land, respectively. On the other hand, Dilasag is the least densely populated municipality in the province with 37 persons square kilometer of land (Map: Population Density, 2010-2015).
Although all municipalities have positive changes in population density during the period 2010 to 2015, Baler records the highest change at 32 (24.02%), which is 8 times higher than the province, and higher compared to the national level. The rest of the municipalities have minimal changes in population density which ranges between 1 to 6. The population density of each municipality in shown in table 3.3.
Table 3.3. Population Density Per Square Kilometer by Municipality
|Municipality||Area (km2)||Population||Density (P/km2)|
Source: PSA, 2015
Figure 3.2. Population Size and Density, by Municipality, Aurora Province
Based on the 2015 census of population, ages 0-14 years old represents 34.5 percent of the total population. However, the production age group of 15-64 years old has the biggest proportion contribution of 54.34 percent of the provincial total, while 65 years and above was recorded at a low 4.82 percent. Table 3.4 is the age and sex distribution of the province.
Table 3.4. Population Distribution by Age and Sex
|Age Group||Both Sexes||Males||Female||Sex Ratio|
|1 – 4||20,293||10,589||11,925||88.7|
|5 – 9||24,862||12,812||9,850||130|
|10 – 14||23,993||12,399||11,594||106.9|
|15 – 19||21,898||11,415||10,483||108.8|
|20 – 24||18,374||9,509||8,865||107.2|
|25 – 29||15,943||8,241||7,702||106.9|
|30 – 34||13,732||7,062||6,670||105.8|
|35 – 39||13,153||6,782||6,371||106.4|
|40 – 44||12,429||6,399||6,030||106.1|
|45 – 49||11,366||5,914||5,452||108.4|
|50 – 54||9,587||5,050||4,537||111.3|
|55 – 59||7,745||3,923||3,822||102.6|
|60 – 64||5,891||2,899||2,992||96.8|
|65 – 69||4,180||1,999||2,181||91.6|
|70 – 74||2,680||1,186||1,494||79.3|
|75 – 79||1,778||703||1075||65.3|
|80 and above||1,710||591||1,119||52.8|
Source: PSA, 2015
The age dependency ratio is found to be at 44.37 percent. This means that for every 100 persons in the working ages or production ages, there are 44 persons in the dependent ages. Sex distribution in Aurora is slightly uneven with the male population dominating by a small degree at 51 percent while the female population is registered 49 percent. Sex ratio in the province is 105 males: 100 females. Table 3.5 shows the sex ratio in the province.
Table 3.5. Total Population by Municipality and Sex
|Municipality||Male||Percent (%)||Female||Percent (%)||Total Population|
Source: PSA, 2015
Aurora shows a decreasing trend in poverty incidence based on the Small Area Estimates issued by the PSA in 2006, 2009 and 2012.
Table 3.6. Annual Per Capita Poverty Threshold & Poverty Incidence of Poor Population
Aurora still has the highest share in terms of annual per capita poverty threshold in Central Luzon at 16% which is more than twice high compared to the Regional poverty incidence of 6.9% in 2018.
III.2. Present Status of Well-Being
There are five hospitals attending to the medical needs of the province of Aurora. Four of these hospitals namely: Aurora Memorial Hospital in Baler; Casiguran District Hospital which is serving the northern Municipalities; Maria Aurora Community Hospital, and; Dingalan Community Hospital are run by the Provincial Government of Aurora.
In addition to hospital care, the Provincial Health Office also maintains a technical division that collaborates with the different municipalities in the implementation of the various public health programs of the Department of Health. All eight (8) municipalities of the province have a Rural Health Unit to support these programs through Barangay Health Stations.
Table 3.7. Number of Health Personnel and Facilities
To bring about a more responsive health system, the Provincial Government is continuously undertaking measures to upgrade hospital services. Structural, organizational as well as operational transformation have been initiated to establish a well-integrated hospital network. The growing demand for hospital care necessitates the need to increase the bed capacity of all the hospitals.
Table 3.8. Ten leading Cause of Mortality Per 100,000 Individuals, Aurora Province
|1. Cardiovascular disease||270||121.64|
|3. Cancer, all forms||50||22.53|
|5. Pulmonary Tuberculosis||31||13.97|
|6. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease||18||8.11|
|7. Diabetes Mellitus Drowning||17||7.66|
|9. Chronic Renal Failure||11||4.96|
|10. Multiple Organ Failure||10||4.51|
Source: FHSIS, 2018 (Field Health Service Information System)
Table 3.9. Ten Leading Cause of Morbidity Per 100,000, Aurora Province
|1. Acute upper respiratory infection||16,801||7,569.18|
|4. Wound, all forms||1,606||723.54|
|6. Animal Bite||1,028||463.13|
|8. Bronchial Asthma||578||260.4|
Source: FHSIS, 2018 (Field Health Service Information System)
Vital Indices for the year 2018 show that Crude Birth Rate is at 18.83% while the Crude Death rate is 4.43%.
The infant and under-five mortality rates significantly dropped from 2014 to 2016; however, the rates increased in 2017 by 0.82% and 1.73%, respectively. Among the identified causes were birth defects, birth complications, Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS), and premature birth or low birth weight.
Figure 3.3. Infant and Under Five Mortality Rates, Aurora Province
Source: Provincial Health Office, 2017
Maternal Mortality Rate
There was a decrease in the maternal deaths per 1,000 live births between 2014 (4 maternal deaths or 1.03) to 2017 (2 maternal deaths or 0.476). Among the causes of maternal mortality were postpartum hemorrhage and eclampsia.
Figure 3.4. Maternal Mortality Rate, Aurora Province
Source: Provincial Health Office, 2017
III.3. Social Welfare & Development
Social welfare is being serviced by the Department of Social Welfare and Development (DSWD), Office of the Provincial Social Welfare and Development Office (OPSWD) and Municipal Governments (MSWDO). These offices offer services to different sectoral groups such as women, children, youth, indigenous people, person with disabilities and senior citizens. Program carried out include family and community welfare, program, emergency assistance program and livelihood development services.
List of Programs and Services Available
- Comprehensive Development Plan for Children (0 – 18)
- Early Childhood Care and Development Program. (0 – 8)
- Children in Need of Special Protection
- Program for the Marginalized Out of School Youth
- Holistic Development Project for the Marginalized Youth (OSP and their families)
- Children in Conflict with the Law
- Children at Risk
- Program for Persons with Disability
- Non-handicapping Environment for PWDs
- Program for the Elderly (60 and above)
- Women and Development Program
- Program for Solo Parents
- Program on Disaster Preparedness and Response (Families and individuals)
- Assistance to Individuals in Crisis Situation (all individuals)
- Technical Assistance to LGUs
Table 3.10. Beneficiaries Being Served by DSWD, OPSWD, MSWDO
|Municipality||Indigenous People||Out-of-School Youth|
In 2018, the National Commission on Indigenous People (NCIP) Region III reported an estimated number of indigenous peoples’ (IP) family of 2,136 and population of 14,678 who are spread in all the municipalities of the province. Majority of the ethnicity of these IPs are Cordillera IP, Dumagat and Ilongot (Bugkalot).
Table 3.11. List of Ethnic Groups
|1. Ilongot||11. Itneg|
|2. Dumagat||12. Dumagat|
|3. Kankana-ey (Igorot)||13. Kalinga|
|4. Agta||14. Isinai|
|5. Bag-o||15. Ibaloi|
|6. Ifugao||16. Bontoc|
|7. Applai||17. Aeta|
|8. Manobo||18. Itawis|
|9. Kalanguya||19. Gaddang|
|10. Ibanag||20. Alta|
Source: PSWDO 2020
Government schools predominate the educational system and complemented by private schools. The three levels of formal education in the province consists of 136 public elementary schools and 27 private elementary schools. 44 public secondary schools and 14 private secondary schools. The tertiary education in the Province of Aurora is being served by government-run Aurora State College of Technology (ASCOT) and three private sectarian institutions, the Mount Carmel College (MCC) in Baler, Lyceum of the East and Wesleyan University-Philippines in Maria Aurora.
Table 3.12. Enrollment in Public & Private Tertiary Schools (SY 2017-2018 and 2018-2019)
Source: DepEd, 2017-2018
Table 3.13 Enrollment in Public & Private Elementary School (SY 2017-2018 and 2018-2019)
Source: DepEd, 2018-2019
Table 3.14. Enrollment in Public & Private Secondary Schools (SY 2017-2018 and 2018-2019)
Source: DepEd, 2017-2018
There are 57, 099 households in the province of Aurora. Maria Aurora has the highest number of households with 11, 052 while Dinalungan has the least number of households with 2, 896. Baler, the capital town has the 2nd most households with 9, 374.
Table 3.15. Number of Households per Municipality
|City/Municipality||Total Number of Households|
|Maria Aurora||11, 052|
|San Luis||7, 901|
Source: Municipal Planning and Development Offices
The continuous population growth in the Province of Aurora brought continuous growth in the number of housing units as well. From censal year 1960, the number of occupied housing units in the Province has multiplied more than six times in 2015.
Figure 3.5. Occupied Housing Units, Aurora Province
Source: Philippine Statistics Authority, 2015
Of the occupied housing units in 2015, majority (46,301 or 94.36%) were single houses while the rest were duplex (1,879 or 3.83%), multi-unit residential (807 or 1.64%) and the remaining 57 or 0.16% were composed of commercial/industrial/agricultural, institutional living quarter, and others.
Table 3.16. Number of Occupied Housing Units, Number of Households, Household Population, and Ratio of Households and Household Population to Occupied Housing Units by Type of Building and Municipality, 2015, Aurora Province
|Municipality||Occupied Housing Units||Number of HHs*||HH Population*||Average HH Size||Ratio of HH to Occupied||Ratio of HH Population|
|Institutional living quarter||4||4||11||2.75||1||2.75|
Excludes households in the relocation area
Source: Philippine Statistics Authority, 2015
In terms of the construction materials of the outer walls of the housing units, 22,572 or 46% were made of concrete/brick/stone, while 14,113 or 28.76% were made of wood, and 6,922 or 14.11% were a combination of both concrete/brick/stone and wood. The remaining 5,382 housing units or 10.97% were made of various light materials. On the other hand, construction materials of the roof were mostly galvanized iron/aluminum (41,152 or 83.87%) and bamboo/cogon/nipa/anahaw (5,218 or 10.63%).
Meanwhile, in terms of tenurial status, 30,218 or 61.16% of households were owners or owners like possession of house and lot, while 11,670 or 23.62% owned house rent-free lot with the consent of the owner, and 4,292 or 8.69% rent-free house and lot with the consent of the owner. The remaining 3,230 households or 6.54% either rented house or occupied without consent of the owner.
The majority of the households in the Province (90.82%) used electricity for lighting, while 7.29% used kerosene and 1.03% used solar panels and lamps. Others used Liquified Petroleum Gas (LPG), oil (vegetable animal and others) and others. Still, 46 households have not used fuel for lighting.
Concerning the main source of water supply for drinking, 24.36% of the households sourced their drinking water from own use faucet community water system, 22.57% from shared tubed/piped deep well, 16.25% from own use tubed/piped deep well, 14.16% from shared faucet community water system, and the remaining 22.66% from various sources such as tubed/piped shallow well, dug well, protected spring, unprotected spring, lake, river, rain and others, peddler, bottled water and others.
Table 3.17. Occupied Housing Units by Construction Materials of the Outer Walls and Roof, Aurora Province 2015
Source: Philippine Statistics Authority, 2015
Table 3.18. Number of Households by Type of Building, Tenure Status of the Housing Unit/Lot, Aurora Province 2015
Source: Philippine Statistics Authority, 2015
Sports activities that require extraneous effort, such as outdoor games, are preferred by the people of Aurora province as evidenced by the presence of basketball courts in almost all barangays, volleyball courts, tennis courts.
Recreation are usually dominated by picnic areas and rest houses (Beach and Farm Resort with swimming pools). Other facilities are cockpit arena, leisure parks and bar.
III.7. Protective Services
Philippine National Police
The PNP has stations in all municipalities, the headquarters or nerve center is located at Camp Ravina in Barangay Sabang, Baler, Aurora. There are 763 policemen and 65 police vehicle in the province. Baler MPS has the greatest number of personnel with 60 while Dinalungan has the least with 29.
Table 3.19. Aurora PPO Personnel and Vehicles
Table 3.20. Status of Mobility of Police Vehicle
For the year 2019, a total of 666 crime volume or 24.65% average monthly crime rate was recorded by the Aurora Police Provincial Office
Source: Philippine National Police – Aurora Provincial Police Office
Bureau of Fire Protection
For Fire Protection, all the municipalities have its own firefighting units(station). There are 123 firefighters in the province and 11 firetrucks. The bureau has a 7-minute average response time in the 24 fire incidents recorded on 2019.
Table 3.21. Number of Firefighters and Firetrucks per Municipality, Aurora Province
Source: Bureau of Fire Protection – Office of the Provincial Fire Marshal – Aurora
Armed Forces of the Philippines
The 91st Infantry Battalion, 71 ID, PA based in Calabuanan, Baler, Aurorais operating in the whole province and three municipalities of Nueva Ecija. Three companies are currently deployed in the province. Alpha Coy in Tanawan, Dingalan, Bravo Coy in Dibaraybay, Dinalungan and Charlie Coy in Diteki, San Luis. A total of eleven (11) CAFGU detachments are also deployed in Aurora province as force multipliers to help in maintaining peace and order in the locality.
Table 3.22. Number of Military Personnel and Military Vehicles of the Province of Aurora
Source: Philippine Army – 91st Infantry Battalion, 71 ID
Philippine Coast Guard
The Philippine Coast Guard has a total of 42 personnel, 5 patrol boats and 8 land vehicles scattered in the province.
Table 3.23. Number of PCG Personnel and Vehicles
|Station||Number of PCG Personnel||Number of Land Vehicles||Number of Patrol Boats|
|Coast Guard Station Aurora||8||1 pick-up, 1 motorcycle|
|Coast Guard Substation, Baler||9||1 pick-up, 1 motorcycle||2|
|Coast Guard Substation, Casiguran||8||1 motorcycle||1|
|Coast Guard Substation, Dilasag||8||1 motorcycle||1|
|Coast Guard Substation, Dingalan||9||1 pick-up,1 motorcycle||1|
Source: Philippine Coast Guard
CHAPTER IV. LOCAL ECONOMY
Agriculture and Range Land Resources
Aurora Province is an Agricultural Province that covers around 36,738 hectares or 11.34 percent of the province’s total land area of 32,954 hectares. Agriculture is the second largest land use of the province behind forestlands, but the most significant sector of the provincial economy, which could be attributed to its significant high production levels of coconut, rice, citrus, coffee, peanut, root crops and etc.
Table 4.1. Physical Features on Agricultural Land
|Municipality||Total Land Area (ha.)||Total Agriculture Area (ha.)||Total Irrigated Area (ha.)||Total Rain fed Area (ha.)|
Source: OPAG, DENR 2018
As of 2018, Aurora has a total of 12,979.86 hectares of Riceland that includes irrigated and Rain Fed areas. Irrigated areas contributed for the 101,263.96 MT of rice produced while the Rain Fed area contributed for around 1,897.20 MT
Table 4.2. Rice Production Situation by Municipality During Wet Season
Source: OPAG, 2018
Table 4.3. Rice Production Situation by Municipality During Dry Season
Source: OPAG, 2018
The municipalities of Maria Aurora, Dipaculao and Casiguran are the top rice producing municipalities with a total combined production of 67,303.88 MT which accounts for the 66.47% of the total provincial production.
Boosting the rice sector is the establishment of the Integrated Rice Milling Complex RPC in Brgy. Reserva, Baler, which provides post-harvest services to the farmers of the Province. Prior to the presence of the complex, the farmers were forced to sell their palay products to traders from outside the Province at low prices. The presence of this rice processing complex has reduced the Province’s vulnerability to trading pressure and helped improve the quality of the rice output.
Unfortunately, the RPC in Baler has temporarily stopped its operations, but a newly constructed RPC in barangay Mucdol, Dipaculao – a cooperative-managed rice mill complex is now in operating to serve farmers’ needs like drying and milling of their paddy rice, which was previously the role of the RPC in barangay Reserva. Another RPC is planned for establishment in the municipality of Casiguran.
Aside from the lack of post-harvest facilities, Aurora has to deal with the high cost of production inputs (fertilizer, palay seeds, etc) as these mostly come from outside Aurora. Add to this is the unpredictable weather condition and extreme weather events, as well as the continuous conversion of agricultural lands to other land using activities that reduce areas for agricultural production, particularly rice.
Coconut is a major crop in the Province of Aurora, covering a production area of about 26,741.75 hectares. From this crop area are produced 110 million coconuts, usually sold as fresh green coconut or copra to other provinces of Central Luzon as well as in Metro Manila. The type and volume of coconuts being sold is dependent on the existing prices of these two products. If the price of green coconut is higher during the period, more of this will be sold by coconut farmers.
Central Aurora accounts for the bigger share of coconut production (62%), Northern Aurora shares 33 % and Southern Aurora with 5 %.
As of 2019, coconut plantations occupy a total area of 26,742 hectares.
Table 4.4. Coconut Area and land Production by Municipality
Source: Philippine Coconut Authority – 2019
A big boost is the establishment of the Aurora Province Coconut Development Center (APCDC) in the municipality of Dinalungan. The center is a collaborative venture between the Philippine Coconut Authority, DENR, Provincial Government of Aurora, and the Municipal Government of Dinalungan, and is intended as a laboratory for different coconut varieties, producing coconut planting materials for farms in Aurora and the whole of Luzon. The center also engages and serves as a showcase of integrated coconut-based farming and coconut products processing, as well as providing farmers with training and technical support.
Corn is one of the most important crops grown in the province and considered as a source of livelihood of almost 1,684 upland farmers throughout the province. Northern municipalities of Dilasag and Casiguran contributed to 82.25% of the total provincial production of yellow corn with 6,964.27 MT of produced.
Corn production area in Aurora makes-up for the third-largest slice of the Province’s agricultural land following coconut and rice at about 2,646 hectares. The northern zone (DICADI area) of the Province adjoining the corn production areas of Cagayan Valley accounts for 56 percent of Aurora’s corn area, while the remaining 44 percent are in the central zone area. Nevertheless, said area planted to corn is only a portion of the potential of the Province as the Bureau of Soils and Water Management had identified the large tract of land suitable for corn production in the DICADI area.
Table 4.5. Corn Production (Hybrid Yellow Corn) by Municipality
|Municipality||Area Planted (Ha)||Production (MT)||Average Yield (MT/Ha)|
Source: OPAG, 2018
Table 4.6. White Corn Production by Municipality
|Municipality||Area Planted (Ha)||Production (MT)||Average Yield (MT/Ha)|
Source: OPAG, 2018
With the total areas planted for White Glutinous Corn accounted to 177.38 hectares, Maria Aurora and Dipaculao were the top producing municipalities that contributed to 57.56% or 220.45 MT out of 328.95 MT produced in the entire province.
Among fruit bearing trees, Banana has the highest production yield with a total of 37,464.60 MT followed by Papaya (3,213.45 MT), Lanzones (625.44 MT), Dragon Fruit (603.50 MT) and Pineapple (159.25 MT, respectively. Coffee production on the other hand remain concentrated in the Municipality of Dipaculao with a total production yield of 36.58 MT.
Table 4.7. Fruit Tree Production by Municipality
Source: OPAG, 2018
For root crops, the total provincial production of 3,368.70 MT, sweet potato posted the highest share with a total of 1,761.54 MT (52.29%) followed by Gabi with 745.30 MT or 22.12%, Ube with 533.75 MT and Ginger 328.11 MT.
Table 4.8. Root Crops and Tuber Production by Municipality
Source: OPAG, 2018
IV.2. Livestock and Poultry
There are 95,476 heads of registered livestock in Aurora. Chicken has the largest population with 37, 972. It is followed by ducks with 21, 697 heads. Maria Aurora has the greatest number of livestock with 20, 282 heads, while Baler has the least with 4, 341.
Table 4.9. Livestock and Poultry Population by Type and by Municipality, Aurora Province
Livestock production in Aurora is low. This is compounded by the interior generic composition of indigenous stocks. Native stocks are accounted for the majority of the total hog species. This holds true for other livestock species.
There are inactive ranches in Aurora. Its inactiveness is due to the high cost of transportation and input services coupled with infra-support services such as road storage processing and slaughterhouse facilities.
To support the livestock and poultry industry, the Provincial Veterinary Office has programs on livestock production such as Artificial Insemination Program. The office is also tasked to carry out various services to include animal disease control regulation and control works and animal dispersal among others.
Municipal and Sustenance Fishing
Seven (7) of the eight municipalities of Aurora are coastal areas, where about one-third of the population resides in 48 coastal barangays and dependent on fishing. Based on BFAR record, the Province has 111 hectares devoted to aquaculture particularly tilapia and bangus production.
As of 2016, there are 1,604 registered fishing boats in Aurora, 1,819 of which are motorized banca while 753 are non-motorized. The total production in metric ton is reported at 32,428.64
Table 4.10. Fishing Boats by Type and Production
Source: OPAG, 2018
- Number of boats are based on the total registered boats under BOATR or the National Program for Municipal Fishing Vessels and Gears Registration.
- Production data is limited due to non-submission of some municipalities
Based on records, Municipality of Dingalan has the highest number of registered boats followed by San Luis, Baler, and Dinalungan. Under the category of Motorized type, Dipaculao has the highest number while Municipality of Dinalungan posted highest for non-motorized type.
Table 4.11. Commonly Caught Fish Species in the Province
|Blue marlin (malasugi)||Goatfish (salmonete)|
|Yellow fin tuna (bangkulis)||big-eyed scad (mataan)|
|Round scad (galunggong)||Lizard fish (dalag-dagat)|
|Rainbow runner (salmon)||Flathead (sunog)|
|Dolphin fish (dorado)||Caballa (talakitok)|
|Spanish mackerel (tangigue)||Red snapper (maya-maya)|
|Baracuda (panghaluan)||Indo-pacific mackerel (hasa-hasa)|
|Juvenile big-eye scad (buraw)||Dogfish shark (pagi)|
|Lapu-lapu (grouper)||Hammerhead shark (karusan)|
|Slipmouth (sapsap)||Butterfly fish (alibangbang)|
|Longpin mojarrah (hubad)||Threadfin beam (saray)|
Source: OPAG, 2018
IV.4. Agricultural Input Sources
There are 210 private traders/suppliers of fertilizers and chemicals including feeds for animals. These dealers are mostly concentrated in the major rice producing municipalities
Most of the rice products of the province are sold to the private rice dealer from Nueva Ecija particularly in Cabanatuan City. This is due to the fact that the dealers offer higher prices than the National Food Authority (NFA) with office and buying stations at Baler, Maria Aurora and Casiguran.
Copra and coffee beans are normally channeled to private dealers. These are then brought to Manila and Batangas for processing. But due to the higher demand of “buko” (young coconut) it is now brought to the provinces of Pampanga and Pangasinan.
Other agricultural products such as vegetables, root crops and chicken are sold to local markets for local consumption.
Cattle, swine and poultry are also sold to local buyers.
There are 134 Accredited Rice Retailer in the province while there are 7,000 Targeted Rice Distribution Program.
Table 4.12. Number of Rice and Cord Dealers by Type and Municipality
|Municipality||Accredited Retailer||Targeted Rice Dist. Program|
Source: NFA 2019
The National Food Authority (NFA) has three (3) existing warehouses with a total capacity of 101,000 cavans. Each located at Baler with a capacity of 64,000 cavans, Casiguran with a capacity of 25,000 cavans and Maria Aurora with a capacity of 12,000 cavans.
Table 4.13. Existing Warehouses, Aurora Province
Source: NFA 2019
The NFA also owns one (1) rice mill with a capacity 1.5 Ton per hour. It is located at Casiguran
There are a lot of financing institutions in Aurora that help farmers. These institutions are private or government banks and cooperatives. There are nine (9) banks and four (4) cooperatives operating in the province such as the Land Bank of the Philippines (LBP), Development Bank of the Philippines (DBP), Rural Bank of Maria Aurora, Aurora (Inc.) Baler Branch, Rural Bank of Maria Aurora, Aurora (Inc.), Main Branch, Rural Bank of Casiguran, Rural Bank of Maria Aurora, Aurora (Inc.), Dipaculao Branch and Aurora Cooperative Bank, Maria Aurora Development Cooperative (MADECO), Casiguran Farmer’s Multi-Purpose Cooperative Inc., and Cooperative Bank of Nueva Ecija (CBNE), Aurora Bank, Producer’s Bank Baler Branch, GM Bank Maria Aurora. However, these institutions are not enough to serve the increasing needs of the farmers in the province. Collateral oriented policy of the banks and other financial institutions contributes to the low availability of assistance and in most cases, disadvantageous to the farmers’ interest because of the collateral being required by the institution.
Table 4.14. Numbers of Farmers by Municipality
Source: OPAG, 2019
As of November 2019, the Municipality of Maria Aurora registered the highest number of farmers with a total of 2,319 or 25. 27% of the total registered farmers in the entire Province. It is followed by Municipality of Casiguran (1, 729 or 18. 84%) and Dipaculao (1,461 or 15.92%). The Municipalities of Dingalan and Dinalungan remain to be the lowest with the registered combined farmers of 1, 235.
Aurora as an agricultural province lacks post-harvest facilities to cater to the needs of the farmers. Post-harvest facilities such as rice mills, abattoir warehouse and dyer will be of great help to the farmers.
Table 4.15. Post-Harvest Facilities by Municipality
Source: OPAG, 2019
Aurora is endowed with natural historical, man-made and cultural attractions considering the existence of beautiful waterfalls, pristine white beaches, historical markers and other attractions which are accessible by land.
The unprecedented boom on tourist arrivals started in the year 2014 wherein 684,077 tourists arrived in the Province, mostly in Baler. Comparing the tourist arrivals from the year 2005 to 2014, there was a dramatic increase of 7,697% in tourists. This could be attributed to the effective promotion and marketing carried out by the Aurora Provincial Tourism Office. The number of tourist arrival continued to increase from year 2017 to 2019, with Baler still having the greatest number, followed by Maria Aurora, then San Luis.
Table 4.16. Provincial Tourist Arrival
Source: Provincial Tourism Office
For eco-tourism, the forestlands of the province, particularly watershed forest reserves could be tapped as eco-tourism sites.
Prominent among these watersheds are the San Luis watershed, Bazal-Baubo watershed, Dipaculao watershed, Talaytay watershed, Bulawan watershed (Bulawan Falls), Calabgan watershed, and Amro watershed.
Table 4.17. Hotel/Inn/Lodge/Resort Per Municipality
Source: Provincial Tourism Office
The Tourism Products of the Province of Aurora were formulated using both its natural and cultural resources and were developed based on the C2C or Canopy to Corals Concept. This means that the products were developed and it’s focused on the protection of Aurora’s natural and cultural richness from the top of the mountain to the flatlands down to the bottom of the sea. A tourism product can be defined as the sum of the physical and psychological satisfaction it provides to tourists during their travelling en-route to the destination. The tourist product focuses on facilities and services design to meet the needs of the tourist.
- Surf – the most popular tourism product of the province.
- Trek – it involved activities such as mountaineering, hiking, trekking, mountain biking, off-road driving, canyoneering, bird watching, kayaking, caving/ spelunking and all other activities that are done on land and inland bodies of water.
- Revel – it involved all the culture, tradition, beliefs, history, festivals and festivities, songs and dances.
- Dive – it involved water activities such as snorkeling, Scuba diving, cliff diving.
Table 4.18. Data on Tourism Enterprises and Establishments
|Restaurants, Snack House, Cafés, Eateries||188||236||255|
|Travel Agency/Tour Operator||8||13||20|
Source: Provincial Tourism Office
Table 4.19. Major Tourist Attractions in the Province
|Major Tourist Destination||Location||Type||Description (Major Features)|
|Baler Catholic Church||Baler (Poblacion)||Historical||The last garrison of Spanish troops to refused to surrender for almost a year even after the declaration of Philippine Independence. The surviving 33 soldiers finally marched out of the church en route to Manila on June 2, 1899, thus ending the so-called Siege of Baler. Instead of being treated as prisoners of war, President Emilio Aguinaldo called on Filipinos to treat them as friends. Nearby is the Lt. Gilmore Marker, a riverbank spot where Filipinos repulsed American forces when they attempted to relieve the beleaguered Spanish troops.|
|Quezon Memorial Park||Baler (Poblacion)||Historical||A public plaza dedicated to the provinces’ illustrious son – Manuel L. Quezon. Within the Park is a larger-then-life metal statue of the late president, a replica of the nipa hut where he was born, and Museo de Baler, Aurora’s repository of cultural heritage.|
|Lt. Commander James Gilmore Marker||Baler (Poblacion)||Historical||Across the left side of Baler Catholic Church stands the marker of Lt. James Gilmore, the commander of US Gunboat: Yorktown who was captured with all his men when he came to Baler on April 1899 to relieve the Spanish soldiers besiege in the church of Baler.|
|Aurora Quezon Marker||Baler (Poblacion)||Historical||A marker built in honor of the wife of Commonwealth Pres. Manuel L. Quezon. She was known for her untiring efforts in providing social welfare services especially to the people of Aurora Province.|
|Quezon Resthouse||Baler (Poblacion)||Historical/ Manmade||Situated just across Baler Church. This is where the Quezon family and relatives stayed during vacation in Baler.|
|Cemento Beach||Baler (Zabali)||Natural||A white sand beach teemed with seashells and crushed corals.|
|Dimadimala-ngat Islet||Baler (Cemento)||Natural||This rock formation is just a few meters away from the reef shore and serves as the southernmost tip of Baler Bay.|
|Santo Entierro||Baler (Poblacion)||Religious||A glass coffin encasing a statue of Jesus Christ in a makeshift wooden chapel. Local claim that the image possesses miraculous powers. During Holy Week, faith, healers and amulet holders flock here to insert their anting-anting into the coffin and retrieve them after Good Friday, believing they have been recharged with power.|
|Digisit Beach||Baler (Zabali)||Natural||The upper landward shore is mostly sandy while the water shores are barricades of corals forming a protective reef that prevents strong Pacific waves from smashing onto the shore. The area is good for diving and snorkeling.|
|Sabang Beach||Baler (Sabang)||Natural||Aurora’s most popular beach and surfing area, it prides itself with a long stretch of grey sand dotted with resorts. From March through June, the waves are relatively calm ideal for swimming and windsurfing, while the other months bring waves for surfers. The most popular surfing point is in from of Bay’s Inn, where beginners ride the moderate waves.|
|Ermita Hills||Baler (Zabali)||Natural||A 2 hectare plateau overlooking the Pacific Ocena which was used by townsfolk as refuge and temporary resettlement which during phenomenal tidal wave in 1735. Pirates later ransacked the whole town and capture some 450 villagers.|
|Canawer Beach||Dilasag (Diniog)||Natural||A white beach at a sheltered nook whose gin-clear water reveals the richness of its marine life.|
|Tariktik Point||Dilasag||Natural||This place is endowed with natural bonsai formation and its water is ideal for snorkeling.|
|Parang Plateau (Pagkain ng Bayan)||Dilasag (Diniog)||Natural||Also known as “Pagkain ng Bayan”, this vast coastal fertile upland overlooking the Pacific Ocean has the most beautiful scenery with enticing flora and fauna species.|
|Bulawan Falls||Dinalungan (Paleg)||Natural||Acclaimed as the Cleanest Inland Body of Water in Central Luzon, it rises 100 meters from the ground. Its impressive rock walling along the river bank adds to its awe-inspiring beauty. Added attraction is the towering tree that showers crystallized water believed to be miraculous.|
|Lamao Caves||Dingalan (Paltic)||Natural||Adventure lovers will surely fall for this forested mountainous area with its hiking, bird watching, rock climbing, camping and spelunking activities.|
|Amper Beach||Dipaculao (Amper)||Natural||Located near a protruding area, the beach is covered with smooth oval shaped rocks which vary in size and darker in color.|
|Balete Park||Maria Aurora (Quirino)||Natural/ Manmade||A huge 500-year old 60-meter Banyan Tree which mesmerizes visitors with its bulky trunk and gigantic canopy. Its trunk diameter is about 6 meters and would take 60 persons to embrace it.|
|Ditumabo Falls||San Luis||Natural||At 140 feet high, its crystal clear water gushes endlessly, flows and twists among countless rocks and boulders downstream. It surrounded by huge cliffs, shrubs and vines making it an ideal for picnics and nature tripping.|
|Caunayan Falls||San Luis (L. Pimentel)||Natural||It flows into a crystal-clear stream tinged by the reflection of the azure sky and its cool temperature.|
|National Irrigation Administration (NIA) Watershed||San Luis||Natural/ Manmade||NIA watershed is a small dam built beside a picnic area in San Luis. Water below the dam is clear with greenish reflection of the vegetation surrounding the pond. It is also ideal not only for swimming but for picnicking as well.|
|Dibut Bay||San Luis (Dibut)||Natural||The wide Dibut Bay coast provides numerous sights such as island formation, appropriately named “Birhen” (meaning Virgin), is an island sculpted by natural erosion resembling the figure of the Blessed Virgin Mary praying amidst the waves. While there are many other interesting spots in the coast area of Dibut Bay, much of its beauty is settled deep in the waters. Since the area is not commonly subjected to dynamite fishing and fine-net trawling technique, an abundance of marine life could be found in the area including the fast dwindling Hammerhead shark and Mako shark. Certain unspoilt areas provide potential scenic diving spots for the experienced diver.|
|Charlie’s Point||Baler||Natural||A surfing spot in which became famous during the filming of the 1970’s Hollywood movie Apocalypse Now.|
|Cobra Reef||Baler||Natural||A spot frequented by seasoned foreign surfers because of its excellent right-break waves over sharp reefs. It is also suitable for body boarding, snorkeling and diving.|
|Casapsapan Beach||Casiguran||Natural||A frequented white sand beach which has a magnificent view of the brilliant sunrise and mangrove forest nearby.|
|Casiguran Sound||Casiguran||Natural||A unique body of water which is nearly enclosed by Aurora mainland and the San Ildefonso peninsula. Only a kilometer-wide inlet connects it to the sea, making it appear like a lake. It is sheltered from storms and monsoon winds making it an ideal spot for watersports.|
|Dicasalarin Beach||Baler||Natural||This natural cove boasts of a kilometer-long white beach. On the left side is a steep imposing hill with a 175-step light house, while on the right side is a peninsula and a cave.|
|Dingalan Bay View Site||Dingalan||Natural||Known locally as “Tanawan” near the boundary of Aurora and Nueva Ecija, it passes through an area sloping upward where a breath-taking view of the town and the bay can be seen.|
|Dingalan White Beach||Dingalan||Natural||This two-kilometer beach has a numerous shells and corals scattered on its southern half, and is suitable for diving because of its rich diverse marine life.|
|Mt. Anacuao Bird Watching||Dinalungan||Natural||A 1,984 meter mountain which is an exciting bird watching safari due to the presence of rare bird species.|
|Aniao Islets||Baler||Natural||A shallow dive site at 30-40 feet, it has diverse species of the table corals such as branching, lettuce, brain and fire corals, and various fish species.|
Tourist Spots in Aurora
A historical landmark indicating the birthplace of the late President Manuel L. Quezon is considered one of the most prominent.
The historic Catholic Church of Baler is remembered as the last pocket of resistance of the Spanish Armed forces to surrender to the American Troops. An account of the battle for the control of the church is marked on the metallic tablet on the wall of the church.
Another tourist attraction in Baler is the Ermita Hill in Sitio Cemento. According to historical accounts, Ermita was built through the initiative of Fray Jose de Esperagoza during the height of Muslim invasion of the place in the 18th century which serves as the inhabitants’ refuge, both for security and religious activity. During the commonwealth time, the place was developed by putting up an altar atop the hill and was beautifully landscaped with gardens of flowers and trees. With the passage of time, Ermita was abandoned and was destroyed, thus the beautiful and attractive Ermita was turned to thickets and shrubbery.
Bulawan Falls located at Barangay Paleg in Dinalungan, Aurora
Ditumabo Falls located at Barangay Ditumabo, San Luis, Aurora
Dinadiawan Beach, Dipaculao, Aurora
Map 5.1. Map of Tourist Attractions
Topping the list of manufacturing industries in Aurora is furniture making with others engaged in food processing and wood/handicrafts manufacture. Products from these industries are sold locally and also reach markets beyond the Province’s borders, including Metro manila. This includes Aurora’s export products that are supplied to Manila-based exporters through sub-contracting, such as its Sabutan hats, mats, and coconut-based alcoholic beverage. Major export markets are the US, Europe, Japan, and China.
Like services, manufacturing activities converged in the central municipalities. However, a likely dispersal and expansion of manufacturing activities are seen to occur in the northern zone of the Province with the development of the Aurora Pacific Economic Zone (APECO). Such development is created under Republic Act No. 9490, signed into law on 29 June 2008. The Ecozone is envisioned as a transshipment hub for the Pacific Region with seaport and an airport, and a base for agri-industrial development, tourism, as well as services. The groundwork for the development of the ecozone is already underway and when completed is expected to stimulate investment in the area and creates jobs for the people of Aurora.
DTI Aurora has focused its programs and projects on Micro-Small and Medium Enterprise (MSME) development through business promotion activities and it laid down its initiatives in collaboration with relevant institutional bodies like the Provincial MSMED Council, the Aurora Chamber of Commerce and Industry with the support of the various Local Government Units (LGUs) and other partner private organizations and cooperators, including other marginalized sectors.
For the year 2018, priority industry clusters, with value chain as an approach, were given support assistances in the area of skills and managerial trainings, product development and marketing promotion. Such programs greatly generated much employment and developed more micro enterprises thereby contributing to developing Aurora’s local economy.
The One Town One Product Next Generation (OTOP Next Gen) Project has supported the cluster activities as this brought about improvement of Aurora’s products, in terms of design and quality that made them more competitive in market, allowing opportunities for micro enterprises to participate in various trade fairs.
IV.7. Mining and Quarrying
The Sierra Madre Mountain, which straddles the whole stretch of Aurora Province, is rich in different types of minerals. Metallic minerals such as copper, chromite, magnetite sand and manganese are said to be abundant along with non-metallic minerals such as limestone and silica. The Province has no existing Large-Scale Mining operations per record of the Environment and Natural Resources Office (ENRO). Small Scale Mining is the one specified in operations. There are 27 commercial sand and gravel permittees in 2020 operating with area coverage of 110 hectares.
Table 4.20. List of Commercial Sand and Gravel Permittees
Source: Environment and Natural Resources Office, January 2020
IV.8. Financial Institutions
Presently, there are already commercial and rural banks in Aurora Province like China Bank, BPI Direct Banko, East-West Rural Bank, BDO Networks Bank, Producers Bank, RCBC Bank, Aurora Bank, DBP and LBP Banks (government banks).
IV.9. Industry Share
Table 4.21. Industry Share of Aurora Province
|Year||Mineral & Quarry||Manufacturing||Construction||Service Related||Wholesale & Retail||Transportation & Communications||Others|
Source: 2016 – 2019 DTI Aurora Master List of Registered Business
CHAPTER V. INFRASTRUCTURE / UTILITIES / FACILITIES
V.1. Inventory of Roads and Bridges
The infrastructure facilities and utilities are vital to the development and growth of Aurora which will in turn serve as gauge of its development level and economic status.
In central Aurora, the circumferential road including the municipalities of Baler, San Luis, Maria Aurora and Dipaculao is now concrete. Farm to Market Roads are now being paved by the Provincial Government through the Philippine Rural Development Project of the Department of Agriculture. Coastal roads are likewise waiting to be developed/improved. Most barangay roads are not concrete paved.
Table 5.1. Length of Road by Pavement
|Name of Road||Concrete||Asphalt||Gravel||No. of Bridges||Length||Total Per Road Section (km)|
|Aurora – Nueva Ecija Road||36.301||22.7||0.521||16||8.313||62.115|
|San Luis – Ma. Aurora-Castañeda Road||2.703||0||0||0||0||2.703|
|A. Castañeda-Ma. Aurora-San Luis Road||35.72||0.079||0||10||37.08|
|Gabaldon – Dingalan Road||6.376||1.249||0||3||0||7.861|
|Dinadiawan – Madella Road||17.008||0||0||1||0||17.069|
|Baler Airport Wye Road||0.038||0||0||0||0.038|
|Baler – Cemento Road||5.073||4.36||0||4||0||9.607|
|Total Length (km)||217.992||30.562||0.521||76||8.72||255.138|
Source: DPWH 2019
Table 5.2. Length of Bridges
|Name of Road||Concrete (km)||Street (km)||Timber (km)||Total Length (km)|
|Aurora – Nueva Ecija Road||0.266||0.164||0||0.43|
|San Luis – Ma. Aurora-Castañeda Road||0.3424||0||0||0.3424|
|Gabaldon – Dingalan Road||0.171||0||0||0.171|
|Dinadiawan – Madella Road||0||0||0||0|
|Baler – Casiguran Road||1.023||1.023||0.092||1.19|
|Baler – Cemento Road||0.132||0.132||0||0.132|
|Baler – Airport Road||0||0||0||0|
|Total Length (km)||1.9344||0.239||0.092||2.2654|
Source: DPWH (Accomplishment Report Inventory), 2019
V.2. Irrigation Facilities
There are various irrigation systems that are present in the entire Province as of November 2019. These includes National Irrigation System (NIS), Communal Irrigation S.0ystem (CIS), Small Scale Irrigation System (SSIS) as well as Rainfed Areas that covers 6.79 % or 825.98 hectares from the entire area of 12, 153.98 Ha. The irrigated systems cover an entire area of 12,153.98 hectares which serve to 8, 247 farmers.
Table 5.3. Irrigation Facilities by Municipality
Source: OPAG, 2019
Among Irrigated area, Communal Irrigation Systems (CIS) remains the highest covering 5,030.14 Hectares or 41.38% followed by National Irrigation Systems (NIS) that covers 1,348.92 hectares (11.09%). Among Small Scale Irrigation System, Pump Irrigation System for Open Source (PISOS) covers the biggest with an area of 1,041.99 hectares.
As for the area, the Municipalities of Maria Aurora and Dipaculao has the biggest irrigated area covering to 5, 922.99 hectares and serving to 3, 422 farmers.
Sources of Irrigation Water
Irrigation water abound in the province. This is shown by the existence of quite a number of rivers and creeks. These rivers and creeks have an estimated mean discharge (LPS) of 4,196.26.
Table 5.4. Estimated River/Creek Discharge by Location
Source: NIA 2019
There are 54 existing communal irrigation system in the province distributed in all municipalities and 1 national irrigation system located in San Luis. The irrigation system has a service area of 7,367 hectares.
Table 5.5. Existing Irrigation System
|Municipality||Number of NIS||Number of CIS||Area (Ha)|
Source: NIA 2019
Map of Irrigation System in Aurora Province
V.3. Domestic Water Supply
Facilities for water supply in the province are classified into level 1, level 2, and level 3. The level 1 type source its water from deep wells/free flowing wells, Shallow wells and spring development, while levels 2 and 3 are communal faucet systems or stand pipes and municipal waterworks systems or individual households’ connections, respectively. The town proper of Baler and Dipaculao are being served by the LWUA and Maria Aurora Balibago Waters.
All municipalities of Aurora have level 1 and 3 water facilities except Dilasag which lacks level 3 type of water source. On the other hand, Baler, Casiguran, Dinalungan, and Dilasag have level 2 type of water facilities.
Table 5.6. Source of Water Supply for Drinking
|Municipality||Number of HHs||Own use faucet community water system||Shared faucet community water system||Own use tubed/piped deep well||Shared tubed/piped deep well||Tubed/piped shallow well||Dug well|
Source: Philippine Statistics Authority, 2015
V.4. Power Supply
The power supply requirements of Central Towns (Baler, Dipaculao, Ma. Aurora, and San Luis) and DICADI area (Dinalungan, Casiguran, and Dilasag) were provided by the Aurora Electric Cooperative, Inc, (AURELCO) while the municipality of Dingalan in the south was served by Nueva Ecija Electric Cooperative Company II (NEECO II) Area 2.
The AURELCO subscribed power supply from the National Grid Corporation of the Philippines (NGCP). The power supply was transmitted from Sta Rosa sub-station to AURELCO sub-station in San Isidro, San Luis, Aurora through on-grid 69 KV transmission line.
At present, the municipalities of Casiguran and Dilasag were connected to National Power Corporation- Small Power Utilities Group (NPC-SPUG) Diesel Power Plant located in So. Motiong, Brgy. Esteves, Casiguran, Aurora. However, due to the long service of the generators, the rated capacity deteriorated decreasing the output generated power which is not enough to supply the demand requirements of Casiguran and Dilasag.
The province of Aurora as a whole, is now experiencing gradual increase in demand due to its developing economy. The present demand at DICADI areas is higher than the power generated by the NPC-SPUG generators. From that situation, the AURELCO proposed installation of another 10 MVA substation located in Brgy.Alcala in Maria Aurora connected to the grid through 69KV sub-transmission line from San Isidro sub-station. The new 10 MVA Alcala sub-station will provide the power requirements of Maria Aurora including the municipality of Castañeda in Nueva Vizcaya, Dipaculao, Dinalungan and some barangays of Casiguran. The power requirements of the remaining barangays of Casiguran and Dilasag still be provided by the NPC-SPUG generators operating 20 hours a day.
Another major factor that necessitates the installation of 10MVA sub-station and 69 KV transmission line is to target the future power demand of the Aurora Pacific Economic Zone Authority which is forecasted of quadruple increase in the next five (5) years.
Table 5.7. Status of Electrification as of December 2019
Source: Aurora Electric Cooperative, Inc.
In terms of household connection, three of every five households (60 percent) in Aurora used electricity for lighting while one in three (36 Percent) used kerosene (36 percent). About 4 percent used other fuels for lighting.
There are six (6) ports in Aurora four (4) municipal ports in Baler and Casiguran while two (2) privately owned ports are located in Dilasag.
Sitio Cemento, Zabali, Baler, Aurora has a length of 400 L.M and the other one (1) is Dibacong, Casiguran, Aurora with a length of 300 L.M. These ports are accessible by land and serves as the only link from Casiguran to Baler during the rainy season when some sections of the Baler-Casiguran road are not passable due to landslide.
V.6. Air Transportation
Baler Airfield (Bacong) is classified as a feeder airport. It has a runway of 12 km. x 30 m of sodden sandy loam and has 30.0 m x 100 m concrete touchdown. Private airstrips are located in the municipality of Casiguran and Dilasag.
By air, the province can be reached via the South East Asian Airlines (SeaAir), which flies Manila-Baler-Manila occasionally. Flying time is approximately 50 minutes.
With regards to telecommunications, Smart Communications/PLDT and Globe Telecoms serves as the main cellular/mobile phones services and internet connection provider in the province. The general public can access the internet through computer shops and internet cafes.
All municipalities have telegraphic communication facilities and single side band radios. Likewise, most municipal and barangay officials have been provided with portable hand-held radios. These communication facilities provide a quick transmission of communications between municipalities, barangays and the provincial capitol.
At present, two local newspaper are circulated in the province. These are the Newsbreak Aurora located in Maria Aurora and Time Record Aurora. Both are published weekly. The Provincial Government of Aurora also has the Aurora Bukang Liwayway which is being published by the Public Affairs and Information Assistance Division of the Office of the Governor on a quarterly basis.
CHAPTER VI. LOCAL INSTITUTIONAL CAPABILITY
VI.1. Composition of the Provincial Government of Aurora
General Public Services Sector
- Provincial Governor’s Office
- Office of the Provincial Warden
- Communication Division
- Public Affairs & Information Assistance Division (PAIAD)
- Investment Promotion Office (IPO)
- Office of the Sangguniang Panlalawigan (SP) Secretary
- Provincial Internal Audit System (PIAS)
- Provincial Accounting Office
- Office of the Provincial Treasurer
- Office of the Provincial Budget
- Provincial Administrator’s Office
- Provincial General Services Office (PGSO)
- Provincial Human Resource Management Office (PHRMO)
- Provincial Planning and Development Office (PPDO)
- Office of the Provincial Assessor
- Provincial Disaster Risk Reduction Management Office (PDRRMO)
Social Services Sector
- Provincial Health Office (PHO)
- Aurora Memorial Hospital (AMH)
- Casiguran District Hospital (CDH)
- Dingalan Community Hospital (DCH)
- Maria Aurora Community Hospital (MACH)
- Provincial Population Office (PPO)
- Office of Provincial Social Welfare and Development (OPSWD)
- People Empowerment and Advancement Center for Employment (PEACE)
- Bahay Pag-asa
- Provincial Employment Sports Culture and Arts for Youth Development Office (PESCAYDO)
Economic Services Sector
- Office of the Provincial Agriculturist (OPAg)
- DBP Forest Project
- Provincial Cooperative Office (PCO)
- Provincial Veterinary Office (PVO)
- Environment and Natural Resources Office (ENRO)
- Provincial Tourism Office (PTO)
- Provincial Engineering Office (PEO)
- Provincial Equipment Pool Office (PEPO)
These offices serve as the heart and soul of the Provincial Government of Aurora.
Table 6.1. Provincial Agencies
|Office of the Governor||Hon.Gerardo A. Noveras||Governor|
|Office of the Governor||Simeon A. De Castro||Executive Assistant IV|
|Office of the Governor||Atty. Jonell M. Torregosa||Provincial Legal Officer|
|Provincial Warden’s Office||John Ryan G. Querijero||Provincial Warden|
|Communication Division||Henedina A. Buenconsejo||Division Chief -OIC|
|Public Affairs and Information Assistance Divison||Norlito Q. Cruz||Division Chief|
|Investment Promotion Office||Cecilia B. Marino||Project Development Officer IV|
|PRDP – Provincial Project Management and Implementing Unit||Jaime L. Rosales||Asst. PPDC|
|Office of the Vice Governor||Hon. Christian M. Noveras||Vice Governor|
|SP members||Mariano C. Tangson||1st district|
|Isidro P. Galban||1st district|
|Jesus V. Palmero||1st district|
|Philip Butch M. Bautista||1st district|
|Jennifer A. Arana||2nd district|
|Eugenio B. Calugtong||2nd district|
|Lordan B. Roxas||2nd district|
|Nicasio M. Salamera||2nd district|
|Sangguniang Panlalawigan Office||Maria Olivia D. Maza||SP Secretary|
|Provincial Internal Audit System||Anna Marie P. Sanchez||Provincial Internal Auditor|
|Provincial Accounting Office||Wilfredo C. Saturno||Provincial Accountant|
|Provincial Treasurer’s Office||Mary Zenclaire N. Ong||OIC-Provincial Treasurer|
|Provincial Budget Office||Atty. Paz L. Torregosa||Provincial Budget Officer|
|Provincial Administrator’s Office||Atty. Jonell M. Torregosa||Provincial Administrator|
|Provincial General Services Office||Ricardo Q. Bautista||Provincial General Services Officer|
|Prov’l Human Resource Management Office||Jude Carmelo Q. Fulgar||Human Resource Management Officer|
|Provincial Planning and Development Office||Armida C. Palispis, EnP., PhD.||Provincial Planning and Dev’t Coordinator|
|Provincial Assessor`s Office||Felicito V. Rubio,Jr||Provinacial Assessor|
|Provincial Disaster Risk Reduction Management Office||Engr. Amado Elson A. Egargue||Provincial Disaster Risk Reduction Management Officer|
|Provincial Health Office||Dr. Luisito G. Teh||Provincial Health Officer|
|AMH||Dr. Vladimir Enriquez||Chief of Hospital|
|Casiguran District Hospital||Dr. Rowel C. Rioflorida||Chief of Hospital|
|Dingalan Community||Dr. Julie Ann Mandapat||Chief of Hospital|
|Maria Aurora Community Hospital||Dr. Myrna P. Nicer||Chief of Hospital|
|Provincial Population Office||Dr. Luisito G. T eh||OIC-Division Chief|
|Provincial Social Welfare and Development Office||Aida H. Rutaquio||Provincial Social Welfare and Dev’t Officer|
|People Empowerment and Advancement Center for Employment (PEACE)||Marilou Z. Sindac||Center Manager|
|Provincial Employment Sports Culture and Arts for Youth Development Office (PESCAYDO)||Sherwin G. Amatorio||PESCAYDO|
|Office of the Provincial Agriculturist||Arnold B. Novicio||Provincial Agriculturist|
|DBP Forest Project||Arnold B. Novicio||Center Manager|
|Provincial Cooperatives Office||Guy Alipio A. Tuzon||Provincial Cooperatives Officer|
|Provincial Veterinary Office||Dr. Angelo R. Silvestre||Provincial Veterinarian|
|Environment and Natural Resources Office||Ma.Teresa P. De Luna||ENR Officer|
|Provincial Tourism Office||Michael A. Palispis||Provincial Tourism Officer|
|Provincial Engineering Office||Engr. Rodante A. Tolentino||Provincial Engineer|
|Provincial Equipment Pool Office||Engr. Cornelio P. Ancheta||Provincial Equipment Pool Officer|
VI.2. Financial Status
Appropriations, Obligated Budget, Allotment Balance
The total appropriation of the province is PhP 839, 379, 437.77. A total of PhP 717, 777, 094.83 or about 85.51% of the total appropriations were obligated as of December 31, 2019.
Table 6.2. Financial Status
|Appropriations||Obligated Budget||Allotment Balance|
|MAINTENANCE AND OTHER OPERATING EXPENSES||283,684,596.78||240,923,483.31||42,761,113.47|
|SPECIAL PURPOSE APPROPRIATION||95,768,236.14||72,431,648.09||16,836,588.05|
Source: Provincial Budget Office
Total Revenue of the Provincial Government of Aurora
The Province of Aurora have PhP 969,348,735.54 total revenue. PhP904,441,247.00 is its shares from Internal Revenue Collections or 93% of the total.
Table 6.3. Provincial Revenue
|Share from Internal Revenue Collections||904,441,247.00|
|Other Share from National Taxes||18,730.99|
|Service and Business Income||35,933,796.30|
|Shares, Grants and Donations||4,289,799.57|
Source: Provincial Treasury Office
- AURORA ELECTRIC COOPERATIVE, INC.
- AURORA INTEGRATED AREA DEVELOPMENT PROJECT
- AURORA PROVINCIAL DEVELOPMENT PHYSICAL FRAMEWORK PLAN
- BUREAU OF FIRE PROTECTION
- BUREAU OF FISHERIES AND AQUATIC RESOURCES, UP-MSI
- DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION
- DEPARTMENT OF ENVIRONMENT AND NATURAL RESOURCESDENR
- DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC WORKS AND HIGHWAY
- DEPARTMENT OF TRADE AND INDUSTRY
- ENVIRONMENT AND NATURAL RESOURCES OFFICE
- FIELD HEALTH SERVICE INFORMATION SYSTEM
- MUNICIPAL AGRICULTURAL OFFICES
- MUNICIPAL PLANNING AND DEVELOPMENT OFFICES
- NATIONAL FOOD AUTHORITY
- NATIONAL IRRIGATION ADMINISTRATION
- NATIONAL MAPPING AND RESOURCE INFORMATION AUTHORITY
- OFFICE OF THE PROVINCIAL AGRICULTURIST
- PHILIPPINE ARMY
- PHILIPPINE ATMOSPHERIC, GEOPHYSICAL AND ASTRONOMICAL SERVICE ADMINISTRATION
- PHILIPPINE COAST GUARD
- PHILIPPINE COCONUT AUTHORITY
- PHILIPPINE NATIONAL POLICE
- PHILIPPINE STATISTICS AUTHORITY
- PROVINCIAL BUDGET OFFICE
- PROVINCIAL HEALTH OFFICE
- PROVINCIAL SOCIAL WELFARE AND DEVELOPMENT OFFICE
- PROVINCIAL TOURISM OFFICE
- PROVINCIAL TREASURY OFFICE
- PROVINCIAL VETERINARY OFFICE